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Lorenzo Gasbarri

while focusing on the nature of the rule itself. When the rule is considered, the International Court of Justice does not clearly distinguish between the practice of member States within the organization and the practice of the organization as such. The advisory opinion on Reparations depicts the United Nations as an entity founded by a treaty, but possessing ‘objective international personality’. 20 In its 1959 advisory opinion, the Court considered the practice followed by the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization in carrying out the functions

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
From Polanyi to the new economic archaeology
Michael Hudson

, while imposing austerity on their own economies by adhering to the gold standard. Jacques Rueff in France and Bertil Ohlin in the United States argued that Germany could pay any level of reparations in gold – and the Allies could pay their foreign-currency arms debts – by imposing unemployment high enough to make wages low enough to make its products cheap enough to run a trade surplus large enough to pay its debt service (Rueff, 1929, 1967; Ohlin, 1929). Most countries followed the ‘hard money’ idea that money was (or could be made to act as a proxy for) a commodity

in Karl Polanyi and twenty-first-century capitalism
Edwin Borchard between New Haven and Berlin
Jens Steffek and Tobias Heinze

by force is declared immoral and illegal, and change by vote is declared practically impossible.’ 79 Borchard’s advocacy for revision of the Treaty and the reparations regime did not imply that he perceived the punishment of Germany at the end of the First World War as completely unjustified. However, he denounced the miscarriages of the victors, 80 using interesting semantics of a ‘superstructure’ being ‘out of harmony with its foundations’ 81 as the Treaty did not contain adequate measures either for political re-adjustment or for the recognition of economic

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

of Franco-​German reconciliation. The meaning of the German word, Wiedergutmachung, encompasses a wide range of acts that at their root express a desire to provide indemnification for loss. In the context of post-​1945 West Germany, the term is associated with the government’s reparations to the victims of National Socialism.7 Consequently, the starting point 142 142   Human remains in society of much of the existent historiography focusing on West Germans’ post-​war efforts to come to grips with the legacies of National Socialism is when Chancellor Konrad

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

the poor economic performance of the centrally planned economies, but also due to their being cut off from Marshall aid and deprived of their traditional trading partners on the other side of the Iron Curtain. Regions such as the Ruhr area in West Germany, which lost much of their industrial machinery as war reparations, found themselves with a head start over the UK and France, thanks to Marshall Aid allowing them to rebuild with the latest equipment. The port of Rotterdam, for example, heavily bombed during the war, owed its new prominence as a gateway to Europe

in Destination Europe
Abstract only
The Armistice and depictions of victimhood in German women’s art, 1918–24
Claudia Siebrecht

organised relief measures. The women of the International League for Peace and Freedom attacked the Versailles Treaty as an instrument which could only lead to future war. The punitive reparations and secret treaties caused women to protest to US President Wilson. The women’s delegation, moreover, demanded a peace that specifically included women’s rights in an international charter of human rights. In the aftermath of the conference, local chapters of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom were held and summer schools were organised. A permanent

in The silent morning
Claire Eldridge

should be applied to settlers involved in anti-government activities between 1954 creating a community 59 and 1962. Without a general amnesty, the association claimed, ‘a true national reconciliation’ could not be achieved, leaving rapatriés unable to feel properly ‘at home’ in France.42 Equally central to being able to feel fully ‘at home’ in France was the question of financial reparations for land, homes, businesses and belongings lost or left behind in Algeria, including relief from any associated debts.43 In spite of strong opposition from officials such as

in From empire to exile
Shaun McDaid

of Irish immigrants dedicated to the annexation of the state by the Irish Republic’. Similarly, Vanguard’s Dominion of Ulster document claimed that Northern Ireland’s lack of resources would not necessarily prevent it from economic success. It asked how the State of Israel prospered, which, when it was established, possessed ‘little more than a few drought plagued citrus groves’.26 (The pamphlet’s author was presumably unaware of the Deutsche Mark (DM) 3 billion in Second World War reparations paid to Israel by the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) after 1953

in Template for peace
Abstract only
A. J. Coates

fifteen years, during which time the productive capacity of the region would be used to make good French and Belgian losses; the Rhineland (that part of Germany situated between the Rhine and the French and Belgian borders) was to be temporarily occupied and permanently demilitarized; Germany was to be virtually disarmed; the admission of German ‘war guilt’ was required;11 and severe and punitive reparations were imposed. The terms were harsh and non-­negotiable; the consequence of non-­compliance was the renewal of hostilities. No account was taken either of the

in The ethics of war
Abstract only
Fort Royal as a perennial construction site on Martinique
Benjamin Steiner

’Intendant et moy aurons l’honneur d’envoyer au Conseil les projets et devis des reparations a faire, et de l’Augmentation des ouvrages que ledit Sr. de la Roulaye jugera absolument necessaire pour donne une espece de seureté a la Colonie. Si nous jugeons des travaux des autres isles par ceux qu’il faut faire a la Martinique, nous devons avertir le Conseil qu’il faudra au moins tous les ans un fond de quatre vingt mille francs pour les fortifications et entretien des magasins, corps de garde et maisons apartenant à Sa Majesté. Le Sr. de la Roulaye a visité celle dans laquelle

in Building the French empire, 1600–1800