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The symbolism of largesse
Jenny Benham

, played an important role in Anglo-French diplomacy. They seem to have done so, however, not before or during negotiations or immediately after an agreement had been struck, but more as an affirmation, after a few months or even a year had elapsed, that relations were still cordial. 54 To take one example, in August 1158 Henry II and Louis VII negotiated an agreement ( pactio ) for the

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
The Chinese ping-pong team visits Africa in 1962
Amanda Shuman

110 Public diplomacy 6 Friendship is solidarity: the Chinese ping-pong team visits Africa in 1962* Amanda Shuman There is great promise in these [Ghanaian] West African players and one day, soon, they’ll make the table tennis world sit up and applaud. Rong Guotuan, China’s first ping-pong world champion, following the team’s visit to Africa in 1962.1 Many people today are aware of the so-called ‘ping-pong diplomacy’ that helped thaw US–China relations in the early 1970s.2 Few know that the Chinese leadership already had two decades of experience using sport

in Sport and diplomacy
Abstract only
Jenny Benham

period was one of intense diplomacy and one in which they both experienced the tricky task of balancing the aims and goals of the papacy and the church with the secular needs and demands of their kingdoms. Thirdly, both the Danish and English kings faced the problematical issue of owing allegiance to powerful neighbours: Henry II to the kings of France, and Valdemar to the German emperor. A large part

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Sean W. Burges

democratization of foreign policy formulation (Belém Lopes, 2013a ). For its part, the foreign ministry has quietly but assiduously worked to encourage an attitude that privileges its position as the experts, the apolitical representatives of Brazil abroad who advance policies of state, not policies of government. The systems established by the founding father of modern Brazilian diplomacy, José Maria da Silva Paranhos Junior, the Baron of Rio Branco positioned Itamaraty as a consistent bastion of professionalism relatively free from the problems of patronage politics

in Brazil in the world
Abstract only
Carla Konta

and writer 1 I never quite understood why the Yugoslavs allowed us to do that. USIS PAO Walter Roberts 2 We live in an era of soft skills. Soft skills – namely the personal attributes that enable someone to interact effectively and harmoniously with other people – are cooperative features of soft power. There is no soft power without personal ascendance, the attraction of who you are, and who you speak for. As this book shows, US public diplomacy in Yugoslavia was a story of soft skills rendered soft-power endeavours. The USIA mission flourished in the

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
George Washington and Anglo-American memory diplomacy, c.1890–1925
Sam Edwards

commemorations this chapter also furthers our understanding of early-twentieth-century Anglo-American relations, an era much less examined when compared to the voluminous literature discussing the post-1945 period. For the events explored here should rightly be understood as part and parcel of an important – but under-appreciated – era of cultural diplomacy. Indeed, although it is often assumed that the ‘diplomacy of ideas’ only properly began during the 1940s, 9 the activities examined here clearly anticipated such endeavors by over twenty years. 10 This period even

in Culture matters
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The politics of Europe in the UK and Ireland
Scott James

developmental trajectories of UK and Irish European diplomacy in the post-war period from a comparative perspective. It is divided into two parts. The first reflects on the relative importance of five aggregate variables which have shaped and help to explain the nature of EU relations prior to 1997: namely geopolitics, economics, institutions, party politics and public opinion. The second section presents a detailed assessment of EU policy under the Blair and Ahern governments – their aims and objectives, principal accomplishments and perceived failures, and the extent to

in Managing Europe from home
Open Access (free)
Thomas Robb

, in spite of such rhetoric, the US−UK relationship remained extremely resolute. The decision by Edward Heath in late 1973 to upgrade Britain’s strategic nuclear deterrent ensured US−UK nuclear cooperation would continue for at least another generation. Intimate cooperation between the two countries with regard to international diplomacy was also evident throughout the period. Similarly, the intelligence relationship between the two countries continued throughout the era and beyond. Thus, cooperation, as well competition, was a continual feature of the US

in A strained partnership?
Douglas Fordham

-historical debate. This debate has been sharpened by a growing literature on the relationship between art and empire, which claims that exploration, colonisation and military conquest were central to the development of British art. 4 Relatively little, however, has been written about the significance of peacemaking and diplomacy to visual form. 5 Perhaps because peacemaking was an uncommon subject for fine art, or because it belonged

in Exhibiting the empire
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The politics of humanitarian exceptionalism
Philip Cunliffe

accepts structured interaction and synthesis of other actors’ interests through strategic coordination, alliance formation, balancing, and so on – all the traditional behaviours associated with classical diplomacy and power politics. In contrast to classical realpolitik, ultrapolitical realism justifies an ‘extremely aggressive security policy that seeks to secure the political community by deleting difference and thus the need for its diplomatic mediation’.18 Far from conceding the reality of political difference and conflicting interests, anti-diplomacy becomes the

in Cosmopolitan dystopia