the condition, arguing that the
primary problem was one concerned with emotions and affects rather
than just intellectual defect. However, as discussed earlier, the
relationship between intellectual development and social and
emotional development was only just beginning to be mapped out in
individual and statistical studies of child development.
Kanner’s work presented the
provided her class members with a ‘Formula to Maintain Calm’:
Cultivate a positive attitude, combining: Acceptance of what you can't change, gratitude for the many blessings you have, compassion for those who annoy you, pride in yourself, an excited optimism for the future.
The reverse of these: frustration, envy, anger, shame and pessimism are all destructive emotions and can cause mental and physical decay.
were individuals with a particular psychological
make-up in terms of intelligence and emotions, with fears and anxieties, whose work was hampered by worry and boredom and whose
efficiency was highly dependent upon sympathy, interest, satisfaction
and contentment. They argued that the most effective and productive method of work organisation was not to force employees to work
against their will but provide encouragement by removing the difficulties and obstacles that prevented workers from giving their best.
The mental atmosphere of the work environment was now
for reform’, he insisted, ‘it is for
the public itself to take the lead. But to do this the facts must be known.’55 By
itself, Lomax’s book might not have had a significant impact. However, public
feeling about asylum treatment had been stirred by the treatment of ex-service
patients as pauper lunatics, and Lomax was able to tap into the emotion generated by this issue.56 Once in the public domain, Lomax’s ideas could be twisted
in wholly new directions: one doctor, writing in the Evening Standard, praised
Lomax for daring to give the public ‘the naked truth’ and
Melissa Dickson, Emilie Taylor-Brown, and Sally Shuttleworth
the ‘moral economy’ through the social history of health, and questioning how we might meaningfully register the experiences of those whose words, emotions, and details of everyday lives are lost to history, and indeed were scarcely registered in their own times. Questioning the very voices and vocabularies through which the social history of health has been constructed, Hamlin warns us against complacency by recognising both the usefulness and the limitations of our approaches to illness and the history of medicine, while adopting an integrative and holistic
In 1874, Carpenter had first published The Principles of Mental Physiology , in which he stressed the interrelation of psychological and physiological behaviour, and thus the importance of the ‘training and discipline of the mind’.
Here, Carpenter explained that tetanus was a symptom of the breakdown of the nervous system, which itself occurred in consequence of ‘an undue excitability of the Emotions [and] their known influence on the “vaso-motor Nerves
–416. A. Ryrie, ‘Sleeping, waking and dreaming in Protestant piety’,
in J. Martin and A. Ryrie (eds), Private and Domestic Devotion in Early
Modern Britain (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), pp. 73–92. E. Sullivan, ‘The
watchful spirit: religious anxieties towards sleep in the notebooks of Nehemiah Wallington (1598–1658)’, Cultural History, 1:1 (2012), pp. 14–35.
17 P. Mack, Heart Religion in the British Enlightenment, Gender and Emotion in
Early Methodism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). P.
Mack, ‘The unbounded self: dreaming and identity in the British
transforming themselves through inanimate objects.8 Objects are
increasingly presented as central to ‘emotional, sensual, representational and communicative expression’ and as an irreplaceable source,
key to providing insights into the lives of those with little access to
words.9 Historians have been especially vocal in arguing for the need to
inscribe material culture within their own scholarly endeavours, not as
mere ‘illustration’ but as ‘exploration’ of ‘practice, ideology or emotion’.10
Meanwhile anthropologists have provided some of the most effective
Popular and personal discourse in the 1960s and 1970s
best avoided for fear of any hint of madness. Aligned to this was a particular contemporary understanding of masculine identity as all three men were part of the post-war managerial generation who were expected to disavow any hint of being ‘soft’, which effectively meant living with the ‘necessity to deny stress’. 60 This made it all the more difficult to deal with the very real fear that all three mentioned in their accounts, as men were not supposed to be prey to such emotions. Within such a prescriptive framework, it was difficult for them to acknowledge let
system of lavatory and lunch breaks, all under the relentless demands of the automated call management system. Part of the strain of such work came from the emotional labour of performing specific employer-prescribed emotions intended to create a particular experience for the customer, while repressing their own natural emotional responses. 78 As a receptionist from Preston working in a similar service role explained, ‘Some people get very angry and abusive both to your face and on the phone. You have to be “nice” to people all the time and never get angry yourself