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John Marriott

abolition as progressive. Since the first incursions of European traders into Africa during the fifteenth century, he argues, modern slavery was seen as a progressive force for change. The slave trade was driven not by adventurers, but by European merchants and financiers operating at the very heart of Western modernization. Black slavery, therefore, was absolutely integral to the growth of capitalism. Furthermore, enslavers

in The other empire
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Frances Steel

think past the technical shell of steamships and the economics of industry to the workers and passengers that set these histories in motion. That said, I do not disregard the institutional context. Earlier histories that detailed maritime politics and policy, or the workings of managerial capitalism, particularly Gavin McLean’s detailed and lively account of the company’s first decades, have been key

in Oceania under steam
Contrasting articulations with the Atlantic world
Chris Evans

attention is given to the Atlantic borderland of the British archipelago, of which Wales was part. Although historians are increasingly interested in the impact that imperial endeavour had on the British Isles themselves, the focus of attention is very often metropolitan – on London as the organising centre of a ‘gentlemanly capitalism’, for example. The cultural turn taken by the ‘new imperial history’, with its professed concern for the marginal and the subaltern, promises something different, but here too a metropolitan bias

in Wales and the British overseas empire
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Overlapping territories, intertwined histories
Felix Driver and David Gilbert

exchange with the spatial structure of the city has been a major focus of attention for urban theorists for more than two decades. 5 Yet the modern European city has, until recently, escaped such an analysis, its development interpreted largely in terms of the evolution of capitalism, urban planning and social movements. In writing of ‘imperial cities’, then, we argue for a different perspective on the history of European cities: to interpret their landscapes, at least in part, as hybrid products of the cultural history of

in Imperial cities
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The 1940s
Neville Kirk

. 17 Moreover, the collectivism and comradeship necessary to win another ‘total’ war convinced Labourites that socialism was not only morally but also practically superior to free-market capitalism. Labour’s keynote socialism of the 1945 election was ‘derived from the lessons of war’, especially the need ‘to use controls and public ownership to plan the economy in the national interest’. Labour would introduce nationalisation, pragmatically and selectively as opposed to ideologically and uniformly, in order to

in Labour and the politics of Empire
The Royal Navy and the South Pacific labour trade
Jane Samson

Britain, through her navy, as the guardian of Christian humanity in the South Pacific. A well-known phenomenon for British social and political historians, humanitarianism in the Royal Navy has received little attention, except in the most visible context of Britain’s African anti-slavery campaign. Ever since the publication of Eric Williams’ Capitalism and Slavery in 1944, 6 humanitarianism and its role

in Guardians of empire
The enforcement of the liquor laws in Hamilton, Ontario, c. 1870–1900
James L. Sturgis

workers and industrial capitalism in Hamilton, Ontario, 1850–1914 (Montreal, 1979), pp. 146–8. 7 Principally relied on in this paragraph were: Marjorie Freeman Campbell, A Mountain and a City: the story of Hamilton (Toronto, 1966); John C. Weaver, Hamilton: an illustrated history

in Policing the empire
The problem of nomadism in German South West Africa
John K. Noyes

description of this process as it was happening at the time. Consequently, the theory of nomadism was less concerned with ethnography or anthropology, and was more about the modern mobility of capital and – more important – of labour in the expansion of Western capitalism. It was about defining and controlling mobility in terms of productivity. And it was about the development of a

in Colonial frontiers
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From colonisation to globalisation
Giordano Nanni

material and outwardly visible rituals and routines of agriculture, capitalism and Christianity, the ideology that accompanied such visions of order was seldom transmitted without being reshaped, appropriated and redeployed in various ways beyond the colonisers’ intention and control. This is not a perfunctory gesture towards contemporary Indigenous cultures: the colonisers’ idea of ‘time’ was

in The colonisation of time
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Western medicine as contested knowledge
Andrew Cunningham and Bridie Andrews

linked with Western capitalism, with the search for markets abroad and sources of raw materials, and concerned in practice as much with spreading the Western way of life and culture as with attaching the economies of other countries to the needs of the economies of the West. For the terms ‘science’ and ‘scientific medicine’ we shall be taking the current position in history of science studies, according to which ‘science’, though

in Western medicine as contested knowledge