invisible to most Gaskell critics, are ‘a species of mole as yet
not recognised. When they awaken from among the dead, from among
the words, from among the laws. . .’ (Cixous, in Marks and de
Coda: Ideology as Doom
A text that was anathema to William and Elizabeth Gaskell was that ‘the
sins of the fathers shall be visited upon the children’. It conceives God as
a vengeful, not nurturing, Father, and denies the child’s right to selfdetermination. Many of Elizabeth Gaskell’s stories reject the obligation
of children to suffer in silence their fathers
Skin Ego , trans. Chris Turner (New Haven; London: Yale
University Press, 1989), p. 210.
4 Laura Marks, The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the
Senses (Durham/N.C.; London: Duke University Press, 2000).
5 Elizabeth D. Harvey, ‘The touching organ: allegory, anatomy, and the Renaissance
skin envelope’, in Elizabeth D. Harvey (ed.), Sensible Flesh: On Touch in Early
Modern Culture (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003), pp. 81–102
6 Jacques Derrida, ‘A silkworm of one’s own’, in Hélène Cixous and Jacques
Plant monsters as ecoGothic tropes; vampires and femmes fatales
as British actress and suffragette, Cicely Hamilton. Hence, concerns about the increasing influence of these feminist and social movements on established gender roles are explored through Wells's orchid as a femme fatale figure.
While Rebecca Stott ( 1992 ), drawing on feminist theories of Hélène Cixous and Luce Irigaray, Toril Moi and Julia Kristeva , positions the femme fatale as Other within the dichotomous perspective of idealised/vilified woman in the male imagination, Mario Praz ‘identifies the femme fatale as praying mantis, a
critical of his exclusion of
the pre-Oedipal mother’s role in the construction of meaning
and culture. Cixous, Irigaray and Derrida also build on Lacanian
ideas without accepting all of Lacan’s insights. For a
critique of the Saussurean approach, see Craig Brandist, The
Bakhtin Circle: Philosophy, Culture and Politics (London:
Pluto Press, 2002 ). For critiques of Lacanian
reproduces another uncanny return of the same, not only in respect
to a lost woman but also in respect to her death, for the repression
of which the mourner had turned to repetition in the first
Indeed, Cixous argues, the uncanniness repetition
provokes suggests that ‘death is never anything more than the
disturbance of the limits’. The double enacts that if what has
diagnosing madness in Christiane, readings of the end of the film
(including Franjus own) have repeated and reinforced the phallocentrism of
the main part of its diegesis. Feminist critics of the 1970s, including
Hélène Cixous, structured many of their analyses around the observation that
in phallogocentric texts literary, philosophical and other the
opposition of male to female is homologous to other key binary
, Paris , Gallimard .
Bory , J.-L. ( 1974 ), ‘La bande à Rivette’ , Le Nouvel Observateur , 25 March.
Bozon , S. ( 1997 ), ‘Tout ce que les acteurs font 2 fois’ , La Lettre du cinéma , 2 , 42–5 .
Caillois , R. ( 1964 ), Instincts et société: Essais de sociologie
contemporaine , Paris , éditions Gonthier .
Cixous , H. ( 1975 ), Un K incompréhensible: Pierre Goldman , Paris , Christian
Debord , G. ( 1992
-annihilated individual who finds a new autonomy behind what had
been a false face. Magdalen the whore, Joseph the cuckold, both
reconstituted themselves by effacing their egos and giving themselves up
to love – which in turn redefines them as lovable. Southwell
submits them only to a metaphorical martyrdom; as Hélène
Cixous said, the recreative, recombinative action of metaphor is the
only possible voice of the
Palestinians with the perpetrators’ story, allowing me to focus on the story of
the 1948 war in Haifa and my father’s part in it.
My autoethnographic approach, which tells, as Cixous (1997) puts it, one
story in place of another story, is part of my search for clues as to what led me
to a lifetime of opposition to Israeli state policies. Most anti-Zionist Israeli Jews
have their ‘road to Damascus’ tale, as to when the penny dropped, usually in
the wake of the 1967 war, or the 1982 Lebanon war (as discussed in Chapter 5).
The story told in this
’s surprise that, on overhearing her speak to a ‘Bobbie’ she can actually speak English ‘as though it belonged / To you’, indicates that despite the apparent friendliness she is both patronising and affronted by the girl’s use of the imperial language. The question locates the point of conflict at that juncture where speaking, writing, oppression and language meet, and foreshadows French feminist Hélène Cixous’s commentary of fifty years later that ‘Woman must put herself into the text – as into the world and into history.’ 129 The poem thus speaks volumes for the years