Settler colonies, ethno-religious violence and historical documentation: comparative reflections on Southeast Asia and Ireland
joining forces with the GaelicIrish rebels in the
Of course, Coote was not the only perpetrator of anti-Irish violence. In
the 1650s, additional examinants also told the Cromwellian High Court of
Justice of the ‘generall Murder’ of Catholics at Island Magee and Carrickfergus
in early 1642. One examinant reported that ‘they and the rest of the Irish
were forced to shelter themselves in houses and that they were taken out and
murthered but how or by whom he cannot declare’.66 Several other possible
witnesses were also questioned about ‘the murther Comitted
Britons and Irish imperial culture in nineteenth-century India
promote the interests of a particular GaelicIrish dimension within
Anglo-Indian society. They ministered to the East India Company’s
many Gaelic-speaking Irish soldiers; set about introducing a
reconstructed parochial system in India which was, in part, modelled
along post-emancipation Irish lines, through the building of churches
and other ecclesiastical infrastructure; and promoted the education of
nationalism as an unbroken
historical legacy. One early variant is that of ‘settler nationalism’ (Keatinge 1978:
24). The Williamite conquest of 1690 and 1691 had defeated the Jacobite
coalition of Old English and GaelicIrish and, through the Penal Laws, had established a Protestant ‘ascendancy’ in Ireland. Membership of that ascendancy,
however, was restricted to those within the Established or Anglican Church. This
excluded both the vast bulk of the Irish population that remained loyal to the
Church headquartered in Rome as well as religious ‘dissenters’ in the non
only involved longer journeys but also brought them into greater competition with continental rivals coming the other way, is perhaps more understandable.
It would also seem that the majority of Irish people living in England were ‘Anglo-Irish’, rather than GaelicIrish. Towns of origin are only rarely identifiable for the Irish people included in our main sources, but those that are known were mainly within areas of stronger English rule. John de Swerdes, taxed in Hereford throughout the early 1440s, was presumably from Swords, near Dublin, while three Waterford
disturbers of the common wealthe’. 30 His letter to the ‘well
disposed reader’ outlines the topic of his poem (the woodkern, or ‘the vipers
of the saide land’) but praises the virtue of his ‘loving Countriemen of
Englande’. 31 His sentiments
and his named audiences illustrate the intricacy of his textual task. As Knapp notes, the
complex responses of the situation in Ireland ‘reveal a tender affection for the
island, while at the same time calling for a brutal response to the Gaelic-Irish
powers’. 32 These
establishment of a new social practice that would have hitherto been unknown in GaelicIreland. 28 The most prominent house on
the street is a three-storey house with a high gable-end facing the viewer. The sides of the
gable-end are decorated with crow-stepping, a form of architectural embellishment very much
associated with Scottish building design in the period, which can be seen in a number of
buildings in Ulster and even in the midlands. 29 In the drawing, the ground floor level of the house appears to have
Pádraic Pearse, Collected Works of Pádraic H. Pearse: Political Writings and
Speeches (Dublin, 1916), 263.
Tom Garvin, Nationalist Revolutionaries in Ireland: 1858–1928 (New York, 1987),
Darrell Figgis, The Gaelic State in the Past and Future (Dublin, 1917), 17.
Themes and influences
a motif which ran through Irish separatist thought, from Theobald Wolfe Tone
through to the Irish state-builders. The fact that they could locate it in the Gaelic
state was an added advantage.
Another facet of life in GaelicIreland which appealed to the
introduction of limited self-government at the provincial level, provided by the 1919 Government of India Act, would have the effect of loosening the imperial grip in that country. 1 The forces of disintegration within the Empire were also thought to be at work in Ireland. Events there since 1916 had seen the eclipse of Irish constitutionalism and the resurgence of ‘physical force’ republicanism and an inclusive, self-consciously Gaelic, Irish nationalist movement embodied in Sinn Fein. 2 Sinn Fein’s electoral advances during the 1918 General Election would spread panic
Present State of Ireland, (ed.) W. L. Renwick (Oxford, 1971), p. 165.
46 A. J. Horning, ‘“Dwelling houses in the old Irish barbarous manner”: archaeological evidence for Gaelic architecture in an Ulster plantation village’, in P. J. Duffy, D. Edwards, and E. Fitzpatrick (ed.), GaelicIreland, C1250–C1650: Land, Lordship, and Settlement (Dublin, 2001), pp. 375–96.
47 Moody, Londonderry Plantation, p. 197.
48 R. J. Hunter, ‘Towns in the Ulster plantation’, Studia Hibernica, 11 (1971), 40–56. See also R. Gillespie, ‘Small towns in Ulster, 1600