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Kseniya Oksamytna and John Karlsrud

found new applications in the peacekeeping scholarship, while peacekeeping has become a source of conceptual development and empirical innovation in the IR literature. This is an overdue development, considering the political and material resources that member states, international organisations, and civil society actors have invested in peacekeeping. This volume analyses UN peacekeeping as an international institution in the broad meaning of the term. International institutions have been defined as ‘persistent and connected sets of rules

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory
Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

What we have learned and what lies ahead
Harold Trinkunas

support from the European Union at a time when the PKK's main adversary, the Turkish state, was engaged in accession talks and had to accommodate EU interests. Recognition is an action performed for others to witness. Recognition does not just affect the actor and the target of action, but a range of external audiences, as each case studied in the volume demonstrates. The audiences for recognition include not only international organisations and states, but also governments, civil society and other armed non-state actors. Armed non-state actors

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
David McGrogan

interpretation has developed. Second, we consider the expansion of the scope of human rights obligations in their “positive” dimensions, which have resulted in recent decades in a vast proliferation of circumstances in which duties are said to exist where they would previously have been considered absent. Third, and finally, we turn to the related broadening of the scope of human rights duties beyond the mere State and its organs to include, for example, corporations and international organisations and how they “respect” rights. The evolutive interpretation of treaty texts

in Critical theory and human rights
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Internationalism and the Belgian crossroads
Daniel Laqua

community suggest that internationalism embraced modernity. These modern features are further underlined by secularists’ confidence about the ultimate triumph of rationalism and by the Catholic response to modernity, which involved the creation of international organisations and events. The First World War produced ruptures at various levels, as evidenced by the consequences for socialists and pacifists. While these movements had portrayed themselves as transnational, they struggled to uphold and develop such links in the face of military conflict. Despite their

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930
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David Keane and Annapurna Waughray

. It is distinct because it differs in its approach from other instruments and their monitoring bodies, regional and international. It is located principally in the dialogue with States parties and Concluding Observations that grow the State party’s obligations incrementally, the guiding and interpretive general recommendations that at times stretch the provisions of the treaty, the innovations in procedure that indicate that the monitoring process itself is subject to the doctrine, the integration of civil society voices at local and international organisational

in Fifty years of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
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Philip Cunliffe

balance of power. The most important political actors in this framework are states. By contrast, the study and practice of peacekeeping is vested in solidifying peace through co-operation, which is structured by international organisations and agreements. In its more ambitious incarnations such as conflict transformation and peacebuilding, peacekeepers aim even to transform the context of conflict through crafting peace settlements. They might also engage in extensive social and political reforms that aim to suppress violent conflict through fostering economic growth

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory
Taking the role of non-governmental organisations in customary international lawmaking seriously
Valentina Azarova

international law by signing non-State armed groups up to informal international humanitarian law instruments 29 and persuading businesses in the extractive sector to subscribe to anti-corruption standards. 30 The third category of relevant non-governmental organisation activity is lobbying, which includes demarches and interventions intended to raise the awareness of both specific decision-makers and their constituencies traditionally at the State level but also in international organisations. 31 Lobbying is made somewhat easier by the formal incorporation of non

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family
Author: Joe Turner

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.

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Place, identity and peacebuilding
Gëzim Visoka

extensively invoke the notion of ‘internationals’ to refer to outsider agents both as individuals and as collectives (international organisations) either working on the civilian or in military aspects of post-conflict peacebuilding (see Chapter 4). The notion of ‘internationals’ often refers to UN missions, regional organisations, the donor community and bureaucrats and policy makers operating under international organisations and Western influential states. On the other hand, the ‘local’ are ­identified as the entire realm of agents who belong to different identity groups

in The politics of identity