Bullough, ‘Le scuole cattedrali e la cultura
dell’Italia settentrionale prima dei Comuni’, Atti
del II Convegno di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, Italia
Sacra 5 (Padua, 1964), pp. 111–43.
M. Gorman, ‘The commentary on Genesis of
Claudius of Turin and Biblical studies under LouisthePious
41 Lupus, Ep. 62, ed. P. Marshall (Leipzig, 1984), p. 68, also quoting Eccl. 13: 19; cf. above nn. 36 and 37.
42 Hincmar of Rheims, De ordine palatii, ed. T. Gross and R. Schieffer, MGH Fontes Iuris Germanici antiqui (Hannover, 1980), c. IV (= c. 18), p. 66.
43 Capit. De disciplina palatii, c. 1, MGH Capit. I, no. 146, p. 298; Capit. de Moneta, c. 5, counts have pares suos, MGH Capit. I, no. 147, p. 300.
44 S. Airlie, ‘Bonds, of power and bonds of association in the court circle of LouisthePious’, in P. Godman and R. Collins (ed
Laury Sarti, Ellora Bennett, Guido M. Berndt, and Stefan Esders
the Carolingian empire’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5 th ser., 35 (1985), 75–94; T. Reuter, ‘The end of Carolingian Military expansion’, in P. Godman and R. Collins (eds), Charlemagne's heir. New perspectives on the reign of LouisthePious (814–840) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 391–405.
N. J. Higham, Rome, Britain and the Anglo-Saxons (London: Routledge, 1992), p. 18
and insular performances of Palm Sunday. Its origins assisted in establishing its authority: medieval accounts such as Durand’s liturgical commentaries and the Golden Legend tell how Theodulf of Orléans (d. 821) heard the Palm Sunday procession from his cell, during his imprisonment by LouisthePious. He composed the Gloria laus on the spot, and the hymn had led to his release from prison and restoration to his episcopal see. 52
The hymn constitutes a unique quasi-biblical creation, whose subtle dialogue with biblical language, text
MGH Poetae 1, pp. 558–9. Theodulf, bishop of Orléans, was
imprisoned in 818 on suspicion of conspiracy against LouisthePious:
although he probably wrote this hymn during that time, he died in prison in
821 without being restored to his see. Cf. GL , p. 764.
(364–75) and LouisthePious (813–40) legislated to free
papal elections from secular interference. 336 This principle was violated in 998 by
Emperor Otto III, whose intervention in the affairs of the papacy
merited spectacular and exemplary divine punishment. The mutilation of
the papal intruder John XVI ‘so displeased God and St Peter, the
blessed prince of the apostles, that [Otto III
slaves should also be included in the category of movable wealth. The
desire to acquire movables remained a very important factor in political
behaviour throughout our period, although it was land which provided the
resources needed to hang on to power in the long term. 15
The splendid cultural life so
evident at the courts of Charlemagne (768–814) and his son, LouisthePious (814–43), forms the central
colouring is contrasted with rustic speech; cf. Astronomer, Life of Louis, trans. A.
Cabaniss, Son of Charlemagne – A Contemporary Life of LouisthePious (Syracuse,
1961), prol., p. 30 (fuco adulationis); and, more generally, T. Janson, Latin Prose
Prefaces – Studies in Literary Conventions (Stockholm, 1964), p. 140.
299 Chronicle, Ep.ded., p. 91; cf. Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy, I.5, p. 161.
• Rhetoric and the writing of history •
would rather give offence to the powerful than use the ‘colours’
of rhetoric to disguise the truth.
Otto of Freising
art and marvellous craftsmanship of these constructions, he comments, now revealed the incidents to those who
had not seen them happen ‘as clearly as if they had been there’.279
Medieval historians made similar observations and drew similar
conclusions. Thus, Gregory of Tours describes histories painted
on walls; Paul the Deacon describes Theudelinda having the
deeds of the Lombards painted in her palace; Ermoldus Nigellus
how LouisthePious had the maxima gesta virum from Orosius
painted on the walls of his hall at Ingelheim, joining the acts of
caesars to the
itself upon them.
And since it is written:
‘Pass not beyond the ancient bounds which thy fathers have
set’ [Proverbs 22:28], whose true doctrine should be imitated
by us as examples, we thought it necessary to recall to the memory
that some of us were present in the palace of Attigny in the time of
the Lord Louis, thepious emperor of holy memory, when there was a