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Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

not new for non-state actors – as demonstrated by the example of the Viet Cong using terrorism against civilians while engaging in guerrilla warfare against regular armed forces – it seems to have become a more common tactic of warfare. Many of today’s insurgents have rebel groups as adversaries, not just states. They also have external adversaries in the forms of foreign states and international governmental organizations. One byproduct of the global war on terrorism is the emphasis that has been placed on terrorist entities and the international scope of the

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
A foundation of understanding
James W. Peterson

can be useful in outlining one of the unexpected transitions in post-Cold War times. However, one could properly ask: “A transition to what?” Perhaps Realism Revised can provide at least a partial answer. One of that theory's hallmarks is the intangibility of state borders and the resulting ability of non-state actors to penetrate them with apparent ease. A brief consideration of these analytical components can cast light on the dilemmas that surrounded the two sets of leaders. Multi-polarity was in evidence across several dimensions and sectors. On the one

in Russian-American relations in the post-Cold War world
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Open Access (free)
Migration research and the media
Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies, Sukhwant Dhaliwal, Emma Jackson, and Roiyah Saltus

official public and policy responses, which in turn undermine the sense of identity and security for migrant and racially minoritised communities (Philo et al., 2013 ). This interaction between inflammatory media coverage and punitive immigration policy can be understood as what Papadopoulos et al. term a ‘regime of mobility control’, which includes both state and non-state actors, and encompasses processes of observation and action ( 2008

in Go home?
Kelly-Kate Pease

creation and enforcement of international human rights and humanitarian norms. The increasing importance of non-state actors in human rights and humanitarian diplomacy, especially as it relates to creating, defining, and implementing human rights and humanitarian principles, means that international relations is no longer the sole domain of states. International relations is more global and more cosmopolitan where civil society actors, such as NGOs, individuals, and business, all play roles in creating international laws and promoting international norms

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
Just war, past and present
A. J. Coates

with traditional ways of thinking than the doctrine of the moral equality of combatants.2 A contestable attribution is evident again in the frequently encountered criticism that the tradition is too state-­centric in its basic assumptions, principles and key concepts to deal effectively with such pressing issues as humanitarian intervention or the use of force by non-­state actors. That judgement is at odds with the reality of a historic tradition that predates the modern state and that, for the most part, grounds war not in self-­defence but in a universal moral

in The ethics of war
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A ‘new humanitarianism’?
Silvia Salvatici

‘new wars’. 5 In this interpretation, the elements that characterised the ‘new wars’ also shaped the new forms of relief. The flare-ups of ethnic and intercommunal conflicts, the resort to violence by state and non-state actors, the emergence of a decentralised war economy, largely based on illicit trafficking and predatory practices: all of this generated the ‘complex emergencies’ that represented a new type of challenge for the humanitarian world. 6 Characterised by ‘extensive violence and loss of life; massive displacements of people; widespread damage to

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
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Michael J. Boyle

and other forms of criminal activity – but this is often not seen as ‘terrorism’ per se. In fact, many Brazilian elites are convinced that the country is not at risk of terrorism because Brazil's foreign policy is pacifist and leans towards not confronting violent non-state actors in its midst. Having successfully insulated the country from the risk of terrorism, the movement towards criminalizing terrorist activities has historically been slow, though recent progress in criminalizing acts in support of terrorism are a sign that things may be changing. Brazil

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
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Ethics beyond technics
Elke Schwarz

technology is no longer the exclusive domain of the US. As mentioned earlier, many states and non-state actors are following suit in discovering the technology as useful for a low-risk strategy to address a problem with force. In this, norms that would require the strict adherence to political accountability and transparency for acts of violence are slipping. The United Kingdom is a case in point in evoking executive powers in drone strikes since 2015 and the

in Death machines
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Naomi Head

the dominant factor, why do questions of legitimacy and justification matter when actors use force? Justifying Violence has sought to answer this question by showing through an analysis of the Kosovo conflict how state and non-state actors recognised the need to justify their use of violence to both domestic and international audiences. Thus, as constructivists argue, even in

in Justifying violence