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Helen Thompson

, especially in states in which great-power status was central to the imaginative foundations of the state’s authority. The inequality of monetary power relations exacerbated what were already fraught relations between the major powers. Inter-state debt between the First World War allies and German reparations to the European allies gave leverage to the United States to push European states towards actions they would not freely have chosen. Within Europe this simultaneously gave the United States and its war allies power over Germany, and Germany the incentive to debilitate

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Hayyim Rothman

‘chauvinist nationalism (Hofshi 1964a , 172).’ This would mean reversing both the ‘emphatic refusal to admit that two peoples share historical rights to a common homeland’ and the consequent ‘rule of the one as master over the majority of the population of the other (Hofshi 1964a , 189).’ More concretely, it would mean reparations: ‘if Jews do not release their homes and their property, which were appropriated by the Nazis in Germany, if they insist now on reparations, appealing to the law, to justice, and to what is moral,’ he wrote, ‘all the more so those who inhabited

in No masters but God
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Elizabeth C. Macknight

‘Observations sur les domaines’ in AD Lozère 7J/7 Fonds de Saint Amand.  4 For a description of auctioning nobles’ land in the Ardèche see J. M. Merriman, The Stones of Balazuc: A French Village in Time (New York, 2002), pp. 66–9. See also B. Bodinier and É. Teyssier, L’Événement le plus important de la Révolution: la vente des biens nationaux (Paris, 2000).  5 ‘Observations sur les domaines’ in AD Lozère 7J/14 Fonds de Saint Amand.  6 ‘Etat et mémoire des réparations’ in AD Lozère 7J/7 Fonds de Saint Amand.  7 F. Choay L’Allégorie du patrimoine 4 ed. (Paris, 2007), p. 21

in Nobility and patrimony in modern France
Patrick O’Leary

considerable danger such as that presented by bullets whizzing through the dining tent at night. 46 The Orakzai were his particular responsibility and, in common with other ‘politicals’ in similar situations, he was faced with the tricky and dangerous task of renewing something like normal relations with the tribe when peace was restored and reparations made. 47 He was made Companion of

in Servants of the empire
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David Brown

territories, making it more difficult for the exiled king to raise finances. William Thomson’s additional goal in these negotiations was to secure massive reparations for damages caused by the Dutch East India Company to English shipping since 1621. Having acquired both the Courteen franchise in the 1640s and the residual rights to the early EEIC voyages in 1653, Maurice Thomson and his partners became entitled to any possible Dutch reparations for earlier damages. On their behalf, William Thomson claimed £48,900 for damage to EEIC ships, £50,000 for the loss of their

in Empire and enterprise
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German–Israeli relations between past and future
Lorena De Vita

existed, also testifies to just how malleable the concept of a rigid Cold War system was, in either Germany. It emphasises how issues that originally had little to do with the Cold War, such as post-war German–Israeli relations sparked by the Israeli request to receive compensation for Nazi crimes against the Jews, could be cast as crucially interwoven with it. 8 In the GDR, Cold War constraints crucially shaped Israelpolitik concerns. In the early 1950s, the huge amount of reparations that the Soviet Union took from East Germany meant that the GDR would

in Israelpolitik
Kathryn Nash

, and Italian and Abyssinian forces exchanged fire with both sides suffering heavy losses. The Italian government demanded that Abyssinia make a series of humiliating and costly reparations, which the Abyssinian government declined, and the Italian government then used this as justification for escalation. It is clear that the Wal-Wal incident was used as a pretext for war with Abyssinia, as evidence has shown that Mussolini decided on war with Abyssinia well before the incident – at the latest in Autumn 1933. 17 Following the Wal-Wal Incident and increasing Italian

in African peace
Open Access (free)
Francisco E. González and Desmond King

underestimates the endurance of group-based distinctions in American national identity. It neglects the continuing salience of issues once considered settled (as for instance in the movement for reparations for slavery) and overlooks how the United States’ international presence, as a defender and model of democracy, exposes its domestic policy to foreign scrutiny. Historians and social scientists have emphasized the ‘exceptional’ character of American democratization, a term with several implications. First, the weakness of class-based divisions – as expressed in political

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
‘Numbers games’ and ‘holocausts’ at Jasenovac and Bleiburg
David Bruce MacDonald

the total number of Serbs killed in Yugoslavia as a whole. Dragnich, Hall, and Vulliamy’s numbers, for example, could either be interpretations of Serbian-based totals for Jasenovac, or Croatian-based totals for all Serbs killed in the NDH. Serbian and Croatian writers would later provoke much of this confusion. However, the original statistics were themselves confusing, as they stemmed from the Yugoslav Communists’ own manipulation of war-casualty figures. The figure of 1,706,000 was presented at the International Reparations Commission in 1946 without any

in Balkan holocausts?
Chris Pearson

creation of a central mine clearance service in February 1945 speeded up operations. But there was a high human price to pay; approximately 471 French landmine clearers and 738 German prisoners of war were killed.102 In the end, 13 million mines were found on French soil, covering 1 per cent of national territory, Demilitarization was essential but expensive. The Consultative Commission for Damages and Reparations (CCDR) put its cost at five billion francs.103 Only once demilitarization was completed could longterm reconstruction of urban and rural areas begin. Like the

in Mobilizing nature