, especially in
states in which great-power status was central to the imaginative foundations of the state’s authority. The inequality of monetary power
relations exacerbated what were already fraught relations between the
major powers. Inter-state debt between the First World War allies and
German reparations to the European allies gave leverage to the United
States to push European states towards actions they would not freely
have chosen. Within Europe this simultaneously gave the United States
and its war allies power over Germany, and Germany the incentive to
‘chauvinist nationalism (Hofshi 1964a , 172).’ This would mean reversing both the ‘emphatic refusal to admit that two peoples share historical rights to a common homeland’ and the consequent ‘rule of the one as master over the majority of the population of the other (Hofshi 1964a , 189).’ More concretely, it would mean reparations: ‘if Jews do not release their homes and their property, which were appropriated by the Nazis in Germany, if they insist now on reparations, appealing to the law, to justice, and to what is moral,’ he wrote, ‘all the more so those who inhabited
‘Observations sur les domaines’ in AD Lozère 7J/7 Fonds de Saint Amand.
4 For a description of auctioning nobles’ land in the Ardèche see J. M.
Merriman, The Stones of Balazuc: A French Village in Time (New York, 2002),
pp. 66–9. See also B. Bodinier and É. Teyssier, L’Événement le plus important
de la Révolution: la vente des biens nationaux (Paris, 2000).
5 ‘Observations sur les domaines’ in AD Lozère 7J/14 Fonds de Saint Amand.
6 ‘Etat et mémoire des réparations’ in AD Lozère 7J/7 Fonds de Saint Amand.
7 F. Choay L’Allégorie du patrimoine 4 ed. (Paris, 2007), p. 21
considerable danger such as that
presented by bullets whizzing through the dining tent at night. 46
The Orakzai were his particular responsibility and, in
common with other ‘politicals’ in similar situations, he
was faced with the tricky and dangerous task of renewing something
like normal relations with the tribe when peace was restored and
reparations made. 47 He was made Companion of
territories, making it more difficult for the exiled king to raise finances. William Thomson’s additional goal in these negotiations was to secure massive reparations for damages caused by the Dutch East India Company to English shipping since 1621. Having acquired both the Courteen franchise in the 1640s and the residual rights to the early EEIC voyages in 1653, Maurice Thomson and his partners became entitled to any possible Dutch reparations for earlier damages. On their behalf, William Thomson claimed £48,900 for damage to EEIC ships, £50,000 for the loss of their
existed, also testifies to just how malleable the concept of a rigid Cold War system was, in either Germany. It emphasises how issues that originally had little to do with the Cold War, such as post-war German–Israeli relations sparked by the Israeli request to receive compensation for Nazi crimes against the Jews, could be cast as crucially interwoven with it. 8
In the GDR, Cold War constraints crucially shaped Israelpolitik concerns. In the early 1950s, the huge amount of reparations that the Soviet Union took from East Germany meant that the GDR would
, and Italian and Abyssinian forces exchanged fire with both sides suffering heavy losses. The Italian government demanded that Abyssinia make a series of humiliating and costly reparations, which the Abyssinian government declined, and the Italian government then used this as justification for escalation. It is clear that the Wal-Wal incident was used as a pretext for war with Abyssinia, as evidence has shown that Mussolini decided on war with Abyssinia well before the incident – at the latest in Autumn 1933. 17
Following the Wal-Wal Incident and increasing Italian
endurance of group-based distinctions in American national
identity. It neglects the continuing salience of issues once
considered settled (as for instance in the movement for
reparations for slavery) and overlooks how the United States’
international presence, as a defender and model of democracy, exposes its domestic policy to foreign scrutiny.
Historians and social scientists have emphasized the
‘exceptional’ character of American democratization, a term
with several implications. First, the weakness of class-based
divisions – as expressed in political
‘Numbers games’ and ‘holocausts’ at Jasenovac and Bleiburg
David Bruce MacDonald
the total number of Serbs killed in Yugoslavia as a whole. Dragnich, Hall,
and Vulliamy’s numbers, for example, could either be interpretations of
Serbian-based totals for Jasenovac, or Croatian-based totals for all Serbs killed
in the NDH.
Serbian and Croatian writers would later provoke much of this confusion. However, the original statistics were themselves confusing, as they
stemmed from the Yugoslav Communists’ own manipulation of war-casualty
figures. The figure of 1,706,000 was presented at the International
Reparations Commission in 1946 without any
creation of a central mine
clearance service in February 1945 speeded up operations. But there
was a high human price to pay; approximately 471 French landmine
clearers and 738 German prisoners of war were killed.102 In the end, 13
million mines were found on French soil, covering 1 per cent of national
Demilitarization was essential but expensive. The Consultative
Commission for Damages and Reparations (CCDR) put its cost at five
billion francs.103 Only once demilitarization was completed could longterm reconstruction of urban and rural areas begin. Like the