Pursuing enemies to death in France between the ninth and the eleventh centuries
The AnnalsofFulda , trans. T. Reuter
(Manchester, 1992), p. 19. This battle rates one sentence in the
Annals of St Bertin and eight words in Nithard, though
the latter had earlier noted that Adalbert had a mortal hatred for
Louis: Nithard, Histoire des fils de Louis le Pieux , ed. Ph.
Lauer (Paris, 1926), pp. 58, 66
) under Hilduin’s supervision, roughly until the death of Louis the Pious in 840. Thereafter, during the ensuing three or four decades, there were independent continuations of those annals in the western, middle and eastern Frankish kingdoms. From the 840s until the late 880s, the so-called AnnalsofFulda were produced in the orbit of the archbishop of Mainz; the so-called Annals of Xanten were written for much of that period at, perhaps, Ghent, then Cologne by the one-time court librarian, Gerward; and the Annals of St-Bertin were written by Bishop Prudentius at
, suggests Ermengard was hostile to Ebbo, having received his abbeys (Lothar removed Bobbio and Stablo from Ebbo: Hincmar, Epistola 198, p. 211).
27 Hincmar, Epistola 10, MGH Epp. 8, p. 4, after June 846.
28 Hincmar, Epistola 12, MGH Epp. 8, pp. 4–5.
29 Annales Fuldenses , s.a. 846, ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891), p. 36 (trans. T. Reuter, The AnnalsofFulda (Manchester, 1992), pp. 24–5).
30 AB s.a. 844–45, pp. 46–51 (trans. Nelson, pp. 58
Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum , 60;
Christiansen, The Northern Crusades , 61.
Saxo, DRHH , ii, 504–9.
For a few examples, see The AnnalsofFulda , tr. T. Reuter (Manchester, 1992), 61, fn.13;
Defining the boundaries of Carolingian Christianity
As Ganz, ‘Predestination’, p. 355,
memorably put it.
The example that springs to mind are the attacks
on Charles the Fat’s advisor Liutward of Vercelli reported in
the AnnalsofFulda , trans. T. Reuter (Manchester, 1991) sa
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock
apparent that he was deaf and mute and thus of little use as a servant. The unlucky child was then taken up by a travelling pedlar, partly from pity but partly too as a beast of burden, to carry smaller wares; eventually the child ran away to a church in Paris, where he was cured (and later became a cleric). 133
An anecdote from the AnnalsofFulda’s entry for 858 provides another snapshot of collective exclusion at work. In Kempten, not far from Mainz, a man and his entire family was forced to live outside the settlement, in the fields, because he had been possessed
Kirche, Recht und Staat im Mittelalter: Festschrift für Franz-Josef Schmale zu seinem 65. Geburtstag (Bochum, 1989), pp. 39–59, at 48.
106 Liber Pontificalis , Vita Nicolai I , cc. 58–63, II, pp. 162–3 (trans. Davis, pp. 234–8).
107 AB s.a. 865, p. 118 (trans. Nelson, p. 123): ‘non regulariter sed potentialiter’.
108 Annales Fuldenses , ed. F. Kurze, MGH SRG 7 (Hanover, 1891) s.a. 864, p. 62 (trans. T. Reuter, The AnnalsofFulda , Manchester, 1992, p. 52); Hludowici et Karoli pactum Tusiacense , 865, MGH Capit. II, no. 244, pp. 165–7.
harmful impact upon growing crops, houses, animals and people consistently feature in medieval annals and chronicles. A typical example is the following entry in the AnnalsofFulda where we learn that in 872:
Omne tempus aestivum grandinibus variisque tempestatibus pernoxium extitit; nam grando plurima loca frugibus devastavit; horrenda etiam tonitrua et fulmina pene cotidie mortalibus interitum minabantur, quorum ictibus praevalidis homines et iumenta in diversis locis exanimata et in cinerem redacta narrantur