Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese
Matthew Bryan Gillis
remained an inveterate opponent to those bishops who condemned his teachings, foremost among them ArchbishopHincmarofRheims.
Hincmar first sought to contain the danger of Gottschalk’s heresy and restore order to the Church, threatened by Gottschalk’s resistance to episcopal correction. Yet the archbishop soon found himself in the position of trying to resolve the doctrinal conundrum of predestination as kings, bishops and intellectuals from other kingdoms became involved in the controversy. The two-fold problem of Gottschalk the unrepentant
, Chapter 13, pp. 259–62; Kleinjung, Chapter 3, p. 70.
202 Screen, Chapter 4 pp. 80–2.
203 R. Stone, ‘Gender and hierarchy: ArchbishopHincmarofRheims (845– 882) as a religious man’, in P. H. Cullum and K. J. Lewis, eds, Religious Men and Masculine Identity in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2013), pp. 28–45.
204 Barbier, Chapter 11, pp. 218–21.
205 Joye, Chapter 10; West, Chapter 12, pp. 230–1.
206 de Jong, Chapter 14, p. 268.
207 West, Chapter 12, p. 238.
208 Joye, Chapter 10, pp. 194–200.
209 Patzold, Episcopus , pp. 179
Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims (d. 882) is a crucial figure for all those
interested in early medieval European history in general, and Carolingian
history in particular. As the powerful Archbishop of Rheims, Hincmar shaped the
times in which he lived, advising and admonishing kings, playing a leading role
in the Frankish church, and intervening in a range of political and doctrinal
disputes. But Hincmar also shaped how those times would later be seen by
historians up to the present day, by writing historical accounts such as the
Annals of St-Bertin, and by carefully preserving dossiers of material for
posterity. This book puts the archbishop himself centre-stage, bringing
together the latest international research across the spectrum of his varied
activities, as history-writer, estate administrator, hagiographer,
pastorally-engaged bishop, and politically-minded royal advisor. For the first
time since Jean Devisse’s magisterial studies in the 1970s, it offers a
three-dimensional examination of a controversial figure whose actions and
writings in different fields are often studied in isolation, at the cost of a
more integrated appreciation. Combining research from recognised experts as well
as early-career historians, it will be an essential companion for all those
interested in the early medieval Frankish world, and in the history of early
medieval Europe more broadly.
The case of Hincmar of Laon in the Annals of St-Bertin
At least six formal episcopal depositions were discussed in councils in Western Francia and Lotharingia after 835. ArchbishopHincmarofRheims was involved in every one. 2 However, the deposition of one of them, Bishop Hincmar of Laon, proved one of the most awkward episodes in his career. As a young man, Hincmar of Laon seemed very promising; his uncle Hincmar of Rheims must have been proud of him. 3 The future bishop of Laon was educated by Hincmar of Rheims, who played the role of a mentor. In his twenties in 858, the younger
Hincmar, the polyptych of St-Rémi and the slaves of Courtisols
The monastery of St-Remi of Rheims produced in the ninth century a remarkable and detailed estate survey or polyptych. Even though this polyptych survives only in later copies, I shall try to show in what follows that ArchbishopHincmarofRheims left his trace on the lost original manuscript, in the shape of a nota mark in the margin of the description of the monastery’s estate of Courtisols (Marne), and then try to discern the reasons for the prelate’s personal involvement in the management of the Rheims estates, as revealed by this
punishments, not for injury to himself, but violations of
the law of God, let him strive to be feared. 43
Few normative texts go beyond this
emotionally ambivalent view of lordretainer relationships. 44 One exception is
striking. In 858, during a crisis in the reign of Charles the Bald,
ArchbishopHincmarofRheims and other West Frankish bishops sent a
preface, p. 256, 21–3: ‘et qualiter tenenda sit sententia canonum, quae post lapsum publice paenitentem ad gradum ecclesiasticum non accedere vel in gradu manere aut ad gradum redire sollicitissime precepit’.
36 VR c. 16, p. 300, 33 to p. 304, 5. On Genebaud, the most important commentary is now R. Stone, ‘Gender and hierarchy: archbishopHincmarofRheims (845–882) as a religious man’, in P. H. Cullum and K. J. Lewis, eds, Religious Men and Masculine Identity in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2013), pp. 28
ArchbishopHincmarofRheims wrote voluminously about the parish and its priest during his long episcopacy (845–82). Author of a treatise dedicated to the status of rural churches, the Collectio de ecclesiis et capellis , Hincmar also issued several sets of instructions traditionally labelled ‘episcopal capitularies’ or ‘statutes’ to rural priests in his diocese, became involved in fierce controversies over particular churches and touched on related issues in many other texts. His interest in the topic represents an important part of
Trising returns from Rome
In the autumn of 871, ArchbishopHincmarofRheims sent a long and indignant letter to Pope Hadrian II, defending himself against the accusations of his nephew, Bishop Hincmar of Laon. Almost as an afterthought, he added a report on a delinquent and violent priest named Trising. 1 Well over two years previously, Trising had failed to appear in front of a synod to account for himself; instead, without Hincmar being aware of it, he had gone off to Rome to take his case to the pope. Now