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The Fowlers and modern brain disorder
Kristine Swenson

’. 8 This chapter will examine how the Fowlers, as entrepreneurial popularisers, revitalised phrenology in the US and, to a lesser degree in Britain, in the mid-nineteenth century, by the masterful dissemination of their ideas and products and their direct appeal to consumer-patients who sought alternatives to mainstream medicine through self-help and self-culture. ‘Practical’ phrenologists such as the Fowlers responded to the supposed ills of modern, industrialised capitalism by touting progressive self

in Progress and pathology
Editor: Claire L. Jones

Drawing together essays written by scholars from Great Britain and the United States, this book provides an important contribution to the emerging field of disability history. It explores the development of modern transatlantic prosthetic industries in nineteenth and twentieth centuries and reveals how the co-alignment of medicine, industrial capitalism, and social norms shaped diverse lived experiences of prosthetic technologies and in turn, disability identities. Through case studies that focus on hearing aids, artificial tympanums, amplified telephones, artificial limbs, wigs and dentures, this book provides a new account of the historic relationship between prostheses, disability and industry. Essays draw on neglected source material, including patent records, trade literature and artefacts, to uncover the historic processes of commodification surrounding different prostheses and the involvement of neglected companies, philanthropists, medical practitioners, veterans, businessmen, wives, mothers and others in these processes. Its culturally informed commodification approach means that this book will be relevant to scholars interested in cultural, literary, social, political, medical, economic and commercial history.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Abstract only
Claire L. Jones

approaches to disability and prostheses altogether. Indeed, the collection is informed by materialist histories of disability, which have drawn on Marxist political economy in order highlight the importance of modern industrial capitalism in shaping disability and prosthesis use.6 Instead, its aim is to bring together a body of new scholarship from established historians and promising early careers researchers from a variety of historical sub-​disciplines to consider in more depth the commodification processes surrounding prosthetics and the involvement of companies, users

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
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Contraceptive commercialisation before the Pill
Claire L. Jones

important because of their role in shaping birth control before the establishment of industry standards of quality control but also because of their unusual, if not unique, position in the market. Lisa Sigel has highlighted the important relationship between sexuality and capitalism in the twentieth century, suggesting that sexuality was used as a lure for capitalism, appearing in all manner of advertisements. 17 Contraceptives, however, represented a particular form of this sexuality–capitalism relationship and were unlike most other goods. While contraceptives were

in The business of birth control
Mallorca (Balearic Islands), 1820–70
Joana Maria Pujadas-Mora and Pere Salas-Vives

the same term that described frontier vigilance.’2 However, isolation in the nineteenth century cannot solely be identified as a refinement of previous practices. It was inseparable from the novel sanitary approach of the new liberal states and the new requirements emerging with the development of commercial capitalism. In order to carry out potentially successful public health policies, use of political power was necessary and, as argued by Norbert Elias,3 social acceptance (consensus) played an important part in this.4 In Michel Foucault’s terms, the development

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Open Access (free)
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

the Second World War. 3 Given the assumption that disease prevention through vaccination is basic to maintaining good health, this paradox merits closer investigation. Japan's divergence from widely accepted international norms of vaccination, particularly the rejection of the commercially successful combination vaccines, provides another paradox, given the country's otherwise full integration into the system of global capitalism and active

in The politics of vaccination
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New Jersey, 1800–70
James Moran

the non-able bodied poor.4 Drawing on Karl Marx and Max Weber, Scull notes that a pillar of capitalism ‘was the existence of a large mass of wage labourers who were not merely “free” to dispose of their labour power in the open market, but who were actually forced to do so’.5 Under these circumstances the contradictions that Reaume and others have found between the therapeutic rationales of asylum work as therapeutic, and asylum work as exploitative, are accounted for. Work as a rehabilitative strategy in the public asylum for psychiatric patients was synonymous

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
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A window on the deaf world
Martin Atherton

Anderson highlights the importance of newspapers as a means of binding members of a community together, stating that each newspaper provides a connection between its readers, who could not otherwise come together in the same place at the same time. The development of ‘print capitalism’ is, he argues, an essential stage in the process of community consolidation.6 Reading the same newspapers allows the large-scale transmission of these ‘cultural values and ideas’ and thus plays a part in developing the sense of belonging to a wider community described by Anderson as

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
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Joris Vandendriessche

secure the political viability of the new state, together with the country’s strategic value as a buffer against French aggression, as it was shared by international decision-makers.20 Belgium became a state where capitalism could blossom. While physicians did not belong to the upper ranks of the industrial bourgeoisie, who profited most economically and politically, they did belong to an upcoming middle class and petty bourgeoisie that had supported the revolution of 1830 and gradually profited from the nation’s economic success. They were part of a social stratum

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium