, 2015 : 16), Charlemagne is dubbed ‘Second Great Unifier of Europe’ (Roberts, 1995 : 116). Until today the king of the Franks serves as an inspiration for European unification (Papiór, 2012 : 45). 5 In the novel, the territory of the EU is said to cover almost exactly the same area as the CarolingianEmpire (Roberts, 1995 : 116). Moreover, the treaty that gave birth to the federal union was signed in Aachen, Charlemagne’s permanent seat of residence and imperial administration: ‘The shade of the Second Great Unifier of Europe was doubtless present when the Treaty
European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
integration to European
politics and societies.
A specific feature of the Franco-German relationship is
the historical continuity of enmity and war. Rivalry dates back to the
division of Charlemagne’s CarolingianEmpire in the early ninth
century and the creation of the contested middle realm of Lorraine.
Later the Treaty of Westphalia gave France limited control over Alsace
, Swabia, Bavaria, and
Lorraine – which included the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg
on today’s map). They did not, however, prove to be durable territories.
Election of kings by the nobility in the CarolingianEmpire was a
Germanic influence that complemented the Roman administrative institutions adapted to the local conditions. This meant that the king was
more primus unter pares, and that the kingdom represented a central
authority versus particularistic tendencies.2 The empire followed this tradition of election in the selection of emperors by the stem dukes