privacy of patients burdened by historically stigmatising diagnoses with a desire to allow those patients a voice as historical actors with claims to agency. As Jennifer Wallis argues, ‘there is something particularly dehumanising about taking away the patient's real name and replacing it with a pseudonym’.
The creative and compassionate approaches pioneered by historians in this field demonstrate why we should not shy away from drawing on sensitive source materials. Although they can be used to identify patients and
Alternatives to surgical gloves for infection control, 1880–1945
Wells performed and documented thousands of invasive interventions – in particular ovariotomies – with minimal complications, without using antisepsis. 54
Wells is only one example. Historians can find many more creative and rational innovations by contemporary surgeons, such as George Callender and Lawson Tait. 55
But the historiography of surgery lost sight of this diversity once Lister had been declared the founding figure of antisepsis and the avoidance of wound infection in the late nineteenth century.
Exploring the history of alternatives
British soldiers as complementary practitioners in the First World
the trenches to capture the illness experience. Private Henry Jackson of the 75 th Field Ambulance RAMC recalled a section of a friend's poem: ‘Although a hundred you may kill, you will find there's hundreds still, for they hide behind one another, and they're good at taking cover.’
The humour of Jackson's friend conveys pointed reflection on health and comfort, with soldiers sparing time to creatively express and process their experiences. Further, soldiers published these poems in trench newspapers and
Mapping the emotional worlds of British VD patients
-centred social histories of medicine, presenting a methodological model that combines fictional and factual sources in a nuanced and sensitive study of patient experiences. Indeed, fiction should not be a last resort, turned to only when traditional archival materials are unavailable. Rather, fiction's creative reconstructions of real-life struggles and emotional worlds makes it an important source to be considered alongside traditional sources. When used thoughtfully, fiction enables historians to access complex and colourful lives otherwise obscured by the clinical nature
Parkinson's Disease – evident in other manifestations of neurology
– this chapter also explores an alternative, and equally ancient, narrative of balance about the dualism of creative genius. Roy Porter used William Blake's lament about the ‘mind forg'd manacles’ of the creative imagination to epitomise the eighteenth-century European Enlightenment's mirror of reason and madness.
My task here is to examine how balancing drug reception in the brain is bound to the
Using oral, archival and written sources, the book reconstructs the experiences of African women and men working in Zimbabwe’s hospitals in the twentieth century. It demonstrates how African nurses, i.e., nursing assistants, nursing orderlies, medics and State Registered Nurses were the spine of the hospital system and through their work ensured the smooth functioning of hospitals in Zimbabwe. The book argues that African nurses took the opportunity afforded to them by the profession to transform Zimbabwe’s clinical spaces into their own. They were interlocutors between white medical and nursing personnel and African patients and made Africans’ adjustments to hospital settings easier. At the same time, the book moves beyond hospital spaces, interrogating the significance of the nursing profession within African communities, in the process bridging the divide between public and private spaces. The book makes a significant contribution to global nursing historiography by highlighting how Zimbabwean nurses’ experiences within hospitals and beyond clinical spaces speak to the experiences of other nurses within the Southern African region and beyond. Through documenting the stories and histories of African nurses over a period of a century and the various ways in which they struggled and creatively adapted to their subordinate position in hospitals and how they transformed these healing spaces to make them their own, the book suggests that nurses were important historical actors whose encounters and experiences in Zimbabwe’s healing spaces – the hospitals – deserve to be documented.
This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what
did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the
Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the
three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual
evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact
which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on
intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy
and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of
the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink,
excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the
soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the
Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in
works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a
frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy.
The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental
and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success
in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not
undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the
roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of
convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions
about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to
affect human bodies and health.
This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that
influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the
Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book
provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine
studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity
and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of
quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions
had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the
construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the
configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread
of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and
differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in
Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking
domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global
English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources,
bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various
Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the
secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of
epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.
Architecture, asylum and community in twentieth-century mental health
Sarah Chaney and Jennifer Walke
month-long series of activities at the Dragon Café, a service user
creative space in Southwark.
In this chapter we explore the value and relevance of a combined
academic and public engagement approach – to the Museum of the Mind and
its users as well as to the history of medicine more generally. First, we
consider the value of public engagement in the history of psychiatry, through
discussion of the longer tradition and benefits of service user
The policies of professionalisation in English mental hospitals from 1919 to 1959
, psychiatric social work, with a distinctive training starting
in 1929, and a professional association formed in 1930.20
Taken together, these developments illustrate shifts towards more effective co-ordination of both healthcare policy and the training of healthcare
professions, more critical and creative approaches towards standards of institutional care, an openness towards American practices, and the beginnings of
early intervention outside closed institutions.
New ideas in occupation
Against this background, the introduction of craft activities at Gartnavel