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Alternatives to surgical gloves for infection control, 1880–1945
Thomas Schlich

purity’. 53 Wells performed and documented thousands of invasive interventions – in particular ovariotomies – with minimal complications, without using antisepsis. 54 Wells is only one example. Historians can find many more creative and rational innovations by contemporary surgeons, such as George Callender and Lawson Tait. 55 But the historiography of surgery lost sight of this diversity once Lister had been declared the founding figure of antisepsis and the avoidance of wound infection in the late nineteenth century. Exploring the history of alternatives

in Germs and governance
Dorothy Porter

Parkinson's Disease – evident in other manifestations of neurology 11 – this chapter also explores an alternative, and equally ancient, narrative of balance about the dualism of creative genius. Roy Porter used William Blake's lament about the ‘mind forg'd manacles’ of the creative imagination to epitomise the eighteenth-century European Enlightenment's mirror of reason and madness. 12 My task here is to examine how balancing drug reception in the brain is bound to the

in Balancing the self

Using oral, archival and written sources, the book reconstructs the experiences of African women and men working in Zimbabwe’s hospitals in the twentieth century. It demonstrates how African nurses, i.e., nursing assistants, nursing orderlies, medics and State Registered Nurses were the spine of the hospital system and through their work ensured the smooth functioning of hospitals in Zimbabwe. The book argues that African nurses took the opportunity afforded to them by the profession to transform Zimbabwe’s clinical spaces into their own. They were interlocutors between white medical and nursing personnel and African patients and made Africans’ adjustments to hospital settings easier. At the same time, the book moves beyond hospital spaces, interrogating the significance of the nursing profession within African communities, in the process bridging the divide between public and private spaces. The book makes a significant contribution to global nursing historiography by highlighting how Zimbabwean nurses’ experiences within hospitals and beyond clinical spaces speak to the experiences of other nurses within the Southern African region and beyond. Through documenting the stories and histories of African nurses over a period of a century and the various ways in which they struggled and creatively adapted to their subordinate position in hospitals and how they transformed these healing spaces to make them their own, the book suggests that nurses were important historical actors whose encounters and experiences in Zimbabwe’s healing spaces – the hospitals – deserve to be documented.

Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

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Architecture, asylum and community in twentieth-century mental health care
Sarah Chaney and Jennifer Walke

month-long series of activities at the Dragon Café, a service user creative space in Southwark. In this chapter we explore the value and relevance of a combined academic and public engagement approach – to the Museum of the Mind and its users as well as to the history of medicine more generally. First, we consider the value of public engagement in the history of psychiatry, through discussion of the longer tradition and benefits of service user

in Communicating the history of medicine
The policies of professionalisation in English mental hospitals from 1919 to 1959
John Hall

, psychiatric social work, with a distinctive training starting in 1929, and a professional association formed in 1930.20 Taken together, these developments illustrate shifts towards more effective co-ordination of both healthcare policy and the training of healthcare professions, more critical and creative approaches towards standards of institutional care, an openness towards American practices, and the beginnings of early intervention outside closed institutions. New ideas in occupation Against this background, the introduction of craft activities at Gartnavel Royal

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Interpreting ‘patented’ aids to the deaf in Victorian Britain
Graeme Gooday and Karen Sayer

/​or epistolary methods) of communication. If they subsequently kept an aid to hearing, they might adapt it with their own creative and craft skills, overriding any control over the transaction presumed by the patentee or vendor. Such are the issues that we explore later in this chapter. Despite the enormous number and variety of hearing devices sold in the nineteenth century, and currently displayed in a variety of museums across the UK and the United States, there has hitherto been no commercially focused study of the business of selling and making them.3 While this might be

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
A disrupted digression on productive disorder, disorderly pleasure, allegorical properties and scatter
Michael Sappol

the struggle against dispersion[,] … is struck by the confusion, by the scatter, in which the things of the world are found …’ (Walter Benjamin, The Arcades Project , 211; H4a). And this: ‘How the scatter of allegorical properties (the patchwork) relates to this creative disorder is a question calling for further study’ ( The Arcades Project , 211; H5). Dear reader, please wonder along with me: what makes the scatter

in Communicating the history of medicine
Abstract only
Lunacy investigation law, 1320–1890
James E. Moran

's authority in this regard applied to ‘any and all mentally disabled persons in the realm’, regardless of their property status. 20 This likely explains the numerous examples throughout this period of creative legal solutions to persons of more humble economic means where the resolution did not involve or require the full elaboration of lunacy investigation law. 21 Despite the emergence of the Prerogativa Regis (which technically made the king solely responsible for the mentally incapacitated during the medieval period), the authorities in English

in Madness on trial