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Hayyim Rothman

consciousness’ is an ‘organic part of our being,’ a striving for goodness that ‘cannot pause midway’ but must be oriented toward ‘the idea of absoluteness, or the highest good’ even if the latter cannot actually be reached. In this way, he argued, ‘the source of morality lies in humankind’ but he relates to it as something beyond himself; it is thus firmly grounded while yet free to function as a ‘creative force’ in progress toward perfection. This is how Steinberg understood the rabbinic doctrine of ‘Torah from Heaven ( Torah min ha'shamayim )’ — ‘moral truth stems from God

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

drawing on the hasidism to creatively reformulate Jewish spirituality for the Westernized Jewish masses (Persico 2014 ; Biale 2017 , 556–574) demonstrated the same tendency, it was most radically exemplified by followers of R. Yehudah Ashlag (1885–1954). Starting in the early 1940s with figures like Levi Yitshak Krakovsky (Meir 2013 ), but gathering momentum during the 1960s and 1970s with the founding of the Kabbalah Center under the leadership of R. Phillip Berg, a modified and simplified version of Ashlagian teachings was brought to the general public (Myers 2007

in No masters but God
Fabian Graham

, increased proficiency in the use of creative media to disseminate ‘digitalised history in the making’ will effectively increase the speed of cultural dissemination and actual development of future traditions. In what I have described as ‘the vernacularisation of tradition’, where the transmission of new ritual forms and traditions has been transferred into the public domain, it is likely that the previously slow-moving influences of transnational cultural flows will be largely replaced by smartphone culture, with future cultural flows disseminated through live online

in Voices from the Underworld
Fabian Graham

Pek; Tua Di Ya Pek–Guinness; Guinness–alcohol; alcohol–Tua Di Ya Pek; Tua Di Ya Pek–Underworld; Underworld–punishment, and so forth. While this simulation is intentionally exaggerated and not intended as a serious analytical commentary on Underworld temple culture or beliefs, it provides an indication of changing associations based on the inversion of religious practices unaccompanied by a change in cosmology. In the process of popularisation, the creative portrayals of the Underworld courts and post-mortal tortures which commonly adorn purpose-built tents during

in Voices from the Underworld
Hayyim Rothman

line of reasoning extends even products of the spirit: ‘the eye sees and the ear hears’ while the artist or thinker is scarcely aware ‘that his mind and his heart are being sown’ with ideas that later sprout during the creative process. Thus, his work is not ‘without external causes;’ it too comes ‘via the domain of another.’ Drawing an analogy to the rabbinic principle that partners to a single deed share liability for damages (Bava Kama 51a), Heyn indicated that partnership in the production process implies shared claims to the results (Heyn 1970 , 202–203). In

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

familial mutuality he anticipated could only be achieved through the mutual task of creatively sustaining human life. Three, spiritual development; because Hofshi believed — like other religious anarcho-pacifists considered here — that the revolution of the heart is the foundation of world-revolution, cultivating the former becomes an imperative. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a commitment to applying the same ideals to others; if, he says, ‘our external relations are not founded on the same principles as our life within the settlement, nothing new, or nothing

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

community, he claimed to see ‘the means to destroy the present order and build a new society (Zalkind 1922g ).’ Thus, he wrote: As the individual understands the present social order, he must free himself and his creative powers from their institutions. It is not necessary to wait until the whole proletariat is free. The individual strives to free himself from slavery through his own production. As soon as he is able, he links up with like-minded people and, in this manner, begins an anarcho

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

. Appealing to Schelling's Philosophy of Art , Alexandrov wrote that ‘beauty is the union of the infinity of spirit and the finitude of matter (Schelling 1989 , 85).’ The one who relates to the world from the standpoint of Azilut , uniting finite and infinite in the Absolute, ‘becomes the partner of God in the work of creation.’ Exercising ‘absolute freedom’ of will in creatively dictating the law, he or she defines the contours of divine will and in this sense makes God . Drawing on a zoharic teaching usually understood as a reference to the theurgic power of the

in No masters but God
Paul Fouracre

associated with a rising population and with the ‘decomposition’ of the estate structures that had characterised the early and mid-Carolingian periods. Alternatively, it has been argued that the smaller units showed that those estate structures were managing a creative response to changing conditions which maintained the dominance of monastic estate-management on a large scale. 31 Another possibility is that these smaller farming units had always been there, but do not become visible until the more detailed evidence of the polyptychs comes into view. It was the larger

in Eternal light and earthly concerns
Abstract only
A world of difference
Morny Joy

early work inspired a number of women scholars to drastically reappraise the western philosophical heritage from its beginnings. In Religious Studies, it also prompted women to develop their own critical analyses and creative experimentations, especially in reaction to the traditional formulas of philosophy of religion. The different works of Pamela Anderson (1998), Amy Hollywood (1998), Pamela Huntington (1998) and Grace Jantzen (1999) all exhibit the influence of Irigaray’s initiative, but certain of their responses have varied, as they have become aware of the

in Divine love