Alex Schafran, Matthew Noah Smith, and Stephen Hall
setting out six principles for producing healthier spatial contracts.
The capabilities approach
Variously rooted in Aristotelian thought about human capacities or Marxist thought about the material conditions of the proletariat, many have developed and defended understandings of freedom not in terms of an absence but instead in terms of the presence of abilities. For example, Karl Marx wrote that ‘“free activity” is for the communists the creative manifestation of life arising from the free development of all abilities’. 5 He and Engels