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Peter J. Martin

sociological, as opposed to a purely psychological, approach to the understanding of improvisational practices. Jazz as an art world In developing the concept of the ‘art world’, Becker was concerned to illuminate the cultural practices and institutional constraints which become established in any field of creative activity (Becker, 1982 and 1974; Gilmore, 1990). But Becker’s purpose is not simply to reveal the features of the ‘social context’ of any process of artistic production (though these may be important); rather, the point is to demonstrate the ways in which such

in Music and the sociological gaze
Art worlds, improvisation and the language of jazz
Peter J. Martin

relatively few systematic studies of improvisation (Nettl, 1998: 4), and those tend to be based on individualistic presuppositions. Indeed, while academic discussions are few and far between, they display a remarkably wide range of psychologistic positions. Thus Kernfield makes a vague reference to the role of the ‘unconscious’ (1995: 130), while in Pike’s phenomenological approach, by contrast, musical improvisation is a ‘rational creative process’ based on ‘conscious inner perception’, and certainly not the ‘uninvited intrusions of the unconscious mind’ (1974: 91

in Music and the sociological gaze
Bryan Fanning

dysfunctional interplay of liberalism, clientelism and corporatism. Many of the elements that made the banking crisis possible, he notes, ‘were intrinsic elements of market liberalism’. These included the limiting of public regulation, the rejection of political guidance of the economy, the indifference of private regulation to securing the common good and the structural importance and discursive privileging of markets and particularly finance.3 Such malign liberalism, he argues, combined with clientelism during the 2000s to destabilise a creative corporatism that had done

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Dave Boothroyd

chapter, Deleuze’s and Guattari’s) thinking on drugs addresses the question of the relationship between drugs, literary art, ‘artistic life’ and the processes of theorising itself in the context of their own intellectual movements away from the humanistic modernity which Foucault refers to as ‘the age of man’. The aim is consider how drugs and drug effects may be considered to figure in their respective attempts to overcome anthropocentric modernity, which traditionally claims the artist and the work of art, moreover the individual creative intelligence and its product

in Culture on drugs
Peter J. Martin

been an important element in the influential work of Paul Willis, and he too has placed considerable emphasis on the significance of music in this process. Given the erosion of traditional institutions and the continuing degradation of work, it is increasingly only in their so-called ‘leisure’ time that young people have the chance to establish a sense of identity and exercise their ‘creative symbolic activities’ (1990: 15). While it is true that the clothes, the videos, the computer games, the magazines, the radio and TV shows – and the music – which form such a

in Music and the sociological gaze
Barrie Gunter

played by social media in relation to cultivation of brand likes and dislikes. Research from the United States by ROI Research has shown that for most America social network users, social media are sources of price comparisons (59%), information about sales and special offers (56%), and an opportunity for them to provide feedback to a brand owner or retailer (53%) (eMarketer.com, 2011b). Social media, branding, and purchase intentions Personal recommendations of brands can often carry far more weight than the appeals of even the most creative advertising campaigns

in Kids and branding in a digital world
Peter J. Martin

that an ‘infinite number of sound structures’ already exists, from which ‘the composer’ makes a creative selection. Musical works cannot be created by their composers, since it is held that ‘abstract objects cannot be created’ (ibid.: 431). Thus sound structures ‘ . . . exist eternally, not because they can have instances at any time, but because they are types, and a type, if it exists at all, exists at all times’. This all leads to the result that ‘musical works, if they are types of any kind, pre-exist their composition’ (ibid.: 436). So from this point of view

in Music and the sociological gaze
Abstract only
Barrie Gunter

information about its authenticity. As societies developed through technology innovations, branding became closely linked to advertising, which in turn comprised a collection of techniques designed to promote commodities, services, or events. The term brand referred to the item being promoted, or to the manufacturer, supplier, or owner of the creative rights to the property or service being produced. Advertising as an activity has played a key part in defining the meaning of brands by presenting to brand consumers or users information about the product or service being

in Kids and branding in a digital world
Abstract only
Drugs in theory
Dave Boothroyd

Self, Elizabeth Wurtzel and Niall Griffiths. The literary arts, along with other forms of art, give expression to the drugs and culture conjunction, collectively providing insightful accounts of the place of drugs in the modern Weltanshauung. The creative outputs of many major and minor figures in modern culture constitute evidence of the direct or indirect ‘effects’ of drugs as an integral feature of modern culture. Those individual works and oeuvres making explicit reference to drugs, or artists and authors bearing individual drug-fiend reputations, are only the most

in Culture on drugs
Barrie Gunter

consumers engaged in online talk about the products and about alcohol consumption, during which they were invited to think creatively about the brands themselves. This activity led to the appearance of inappropriate chatter about drinking that could have been seen by children, and which in the context of regular advertising would not be permitted. The policing of this activity, given the subtle nature it can take, will be difficult, but the ASB had made a start by making it clear that brand owners would be held responsible for the contents appearing on their own social

in Kids and branding in a digital world