derivatives of social, cultural and economic structures, the autonomy of migration lens reveals migration to be a constituent creative force which fuels social, cultural and economic transformations. Migration can be understood as a force which evades the policing practices of subjectivity.
Migration can also be understood as a force that not only evades, but that reshapes what it means to be a citizen or migrant subject. To think about the pervasiveness and constitutive force of migration in today
belonging and entitlement will not only make it more difficult to turn away from the inequalities they foster and reinforce, but that these examinations will contribute tools to help unravel these injustices and find alternatives to citizenship that embrace migration and difference as constitutive creative forces of all social life.
their individuality, that is, in their empirical life, work and relationships. In
defending Jewish emancipation against the restoration of the Jewish question, Marx
re-affirmed the subjective right of Jews to be citizens, to be Jews, and to deal
creatively, singularly, in their own way, with their Jewish origins. Real humanism
is a revolt against the tyranny of provenance.
The humanist Marx we are endeavouring to uncover is doubtless not
the only Marx we could
history of the world
can add to an elucidation of the dynamic inter-relation of civilisations with the
assemblage of oceanic forces.
There are four aspects to this inter-relation discussed in this chapter and then in
Chapter 6. The four aspects criss-cross the four dimensions of inter-civilisational
engagement. First is the orientation of civilisations to seas and oceans. Many
societies exhibit a cultural and perhaps civilisational reluctance to embrace sea-
going, while others are less hesitant. Creative orientations to seafaring can be
seen in the acquisition of
were fostered in multiple dialogues with foreign currents in philosophy, literature, politics and art
and with Latin America’s own multi-civilisational past. Modernists made careful
study of foreign trends. However, they also routinely tempered engagement of
international currents with the struggle to find a place for them in cultural life.
Writers, poets, philosophers and activists often turned to traditions they saw
as their own when looking to place themselves in the world. They were at their
most creative when unapologetically synthesising southern experiences
Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory
Jeremy C.A. Smith
Pacific’s creative cosmologies telescope a past of high
interaction into the present. It is important to foreground myths, the patterns
of engagement, reciprocity and creation to compensate for the inherited cartographies of ‘emptiness’ bequeathed by colonialism and reproduced in current-
day discourses of the Pacific Rim. A paradigm of inter-civilisational engagement
is evident in these patterns, even though connections with civilisations outside
Oceania may have only fully come in the eighteenth century. There are resources
for renewal in the cosmologies of
resisting change or subverting or avoiding it.
When an attempt is made to create a new world either by rulers or by revolt against rulers, every aspect of human identity finds a place on the revolutionary agenda. Whilst attempted transformation from above differs in many ways from insurrection from below, each seeks to create new identities, and may do so across the whole range of human culture. There are both destructive and creative dimensions to such campaigns. In their extreme form, they involve the attempt to
dualism was established.
The universalism of philosophy and religions entering from Asia was relativised
when resituated in Japanese cultural environments. Native traditions played off
against foreign influences during the early era of adaptation of the Chinese model
set an ontological blueprint of uchi-soto (inside–outside) orientations for relations with foreign cultures. Uchi-soto demanded highly creative agency on part of
the intelligentsia. In that role, intellectuals reinterpreted the polarised dualisms
of the doctrines of Buddhism and Confucianism and
centre the individual
participants in the encounter as creative and reflexive (Hoggett 2001: 37).
However, even though this positioning of the individual client or patient
as resourceful may reflect a positive development within policy research,
Hoggett argues for a model of agency able to deal with individuals who also
exhibit destructive behaviours towards themselves and others. This model
of agency can deal with the negative capacities of the welfare subject and
not only measure so-called creative agents against their abilities to act
strategically (Hoggett 2001
underestimated. The indigenous civilisations subsumed had creative and complex cosmologies and sophisticated orientations towards interaction. They appeared, in European eyes, to lack
the institutional complexes, economic forms and material structures of ‘civilisation’. Of course, colonisation of the Americas looked very different to the later
subjugation of Oceania. Nevertheless, both historical processes had comparable aspects. In the imperial imaginary, the signs of civilisation were instituted
originally in the Americas, forming part of western European experiences of