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Fragility, brokenness and failure
James Paz

in any congregation or meshwork there is a ‘friction and violence between parts’ so that assemblages are ‘living, throbbing confederations that are able to function despite the persistent presence of energies that confound them from within’.1 As such, when looking at how things are assembled in a poem like The Dream, we need to attend not only to the way in which the bits 176 176 Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture and pieces come together but to how they suffer wounding, damage, breakage, but then seek new encounters to creatively

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Megan Cavell and Jennifer Neville

about creative translation. Creative translation may indeed be seen as a comparative approach in its own right—one that insists on the coming together of two different cultural moments to create a new piece of art. The translation of early medieval English literature has a long legacy, and translation of the riddles in particular has played a prominent role. The past ten years have witnessed a creative renaissance, including volumes that bring multiple poets together in a communal translation project, those that focus our attention on individual collections which

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
The Dark Knight and Balder’s descent to Hel
Dustin Geeraert

corresponded with increased creative liberties in new cultural responses to archetypal stories, which thus occur in an increasing proliferation of forms. Nolan’s notion of theatrical performance offers insight into The Dark Knight by locating the film in a symbolic tradition; indeed, it can be seen as a response to the entire history of its principal comic book characters, as well as to elements that gradually became established there by reiteration. Foremost among these is the tragedy of dynastic failure, manifested poignantly in the hero’s loss of an heir. Comparisons

in From Iceland to the Americas
Kate Greenspan

In his handbook for priests, Handlyng Synne, Robert Mannyng rewrites the lives of the saints in the exempla in order to ‘English’ them for his audience, appropriating formal as well as content-related features for his readership in need of spiritual education. Mannyng’s rewritings display a growing sense of national identity, but also make creative use of generic categories.

in Sanctity as literature in late medieval Britain
Jennifer L. Sisk

Throughout the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer creatively uses the hagiographic mode in both secular and religious tales as a way of negotiating hagiographic authority as a legitimising force. In several of his tales, notably the Physician’s Tale, The Clerk’s Tale, and the Man of Law’s Tale, Chaucer employs the powers of this authority, through the concept of sanctity, in order to articulate aspects of the literary. This articulation, which is problematic in many cases, leads to indeterminacy and is used to explore questions of character, authorship, authorisation, and power.

in Sanctity as literature in late medieval Britain
The case of Le Menagier de Paris
Glenn Burger

Presenting itself as a collection of useful advice collected by an old husband for his young wife, the Menagier de Paris (c. 1394) offers a masterclass on domestic knowledge consumption, processing, production, and retransmission. While the majority of criticism on this text focuses on its more tightly structured first section, which anthologises a range of popular exempla relating to ideal conduct within the home, Burger also considers its looser second section, which sets an allegorical poem alongside a mix of culinary, horticultural, and husbandry texts. Thus Burger is able to show how the instruction offered by the husband develops out of a lesson on the correct sorting and interpretation of a pre-established canon of advice texts to include a demonstration of the creative work of adaptation and reformation that precedes the application of authoritative precepts in a given, local context. On this reading, the Menagier de Paris is revealed to be not only a vital repertory of information pertinent to the running of a late medieval household but also a manual including instruction in the best ways to use, perpetuate, and proliferate household knowledges as such.

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France
Abstract only
Joshua Davies

Middle Ages in the modern word, while at the same time exploring the production of cultural memory in the British Middle Ages. This double focus enables an examination of texts that may be separated by long stretches of time but which share desires, anxieties or sources alongside one another, in sometimes uneasy proximity. The texts we encounter in this book work creatively with time and history. They insist that the past might be, or become, present. Structures of feeling and networks of memory Definitions of cultural memory are necessarily broad and flexible, as the

in Visions and ruins
Abstract only
Sanctity as literature
Eva von Contzen

textual elements that are functional primarily with respect to the status of the text as a literary one. A significant element in the creative process that brings forth a work of literature is the testing and pushing of limits on the basis of the well-known and familiar: The creative mind can work only with the materials to which it has access, and it can have no certain knowledge beyond these; it therefore has to operate without being sure of where it is going, probing the limits of the culture’s givens, taking advantage of their contradictions and tensions, seeking

in Sanctity as literature in late medieval Britain
Norse gods and American comics during the Second World War
Jón Karl Helgason

tall building already home to Detective Comics’ headquarters, and started to publish comic magazines with stories produced by freelance artists and independent studios. Unsurprisingly, Liebowitz and Donenfeld of Detective Comics were not particularly happy with these new competitors. Referencing Wonder Man’s close resemblance to Superman, they successfully sued Fox and Farrell for copyright infringement, compelling their new neighbours to become more creative in their dealings. 10 Thor was one of several new superheroes introduced by Fox and Farrell over the

in From Iceland to the Americas
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde and John Lydgate’s Troy Book
Heather Blatt

an example of each of these variations on the emendation invitation, selected from among the many writers who use the invitation partly for clarity of expres- Corrective reading 29 sion and partly because all three examples come from writers associated with Chaucer: Chaucer himself, Lydgate, Chaucer’s most influential follower, and Thomas Norton, a late fifteenth-century Chaucerian. Chaucer’s contributions to the development of a modern understanding of the writer as author, possessing authority and creative originality, has long been explored by critics.5 Yet

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England