Time, space and the mapped trace
These ideas about timelessness depend on an opposition between technology
and society. In his study Transductions, Adrian Mackenzie (2002) shows how that
opposition has been challenged by relational approaches to technology, where
to be human is to be necessarily bound up with technology, as with Bernard
Stiegler’s employment of Jacque Derrida’s concept of ‘originary technicity’.5
For Stiegler (1998), the tools with which we mediate time and space specify
the way in which we experience them. Mackenzie (2002) describes how related
Border images and narratives: paradoxes, spheres, aesthetics
Johan Schimanski and Jopi Nyman
resisting power: the technologies involved in themselves both subvert and extend state power as they cross national borders; they function as ‘pharmakons’, to use Jacques Derrida's deconstructive term ( 1981 : 70) designating both a remedy and a poison (Pötzsch; Müller-Funk). Since such technologies are mostly ways of revealing and indeed visualising different kinds of border-crossing, the paradox of subversion/complicity becomes intimately connected to that of in/visibility in the borderscape (Pötzsch), and often also with another paradox, that of il
pragmatism are evident.
Indeed Thrift’s earlier (1999) genealogy of NRT shows it stretching back through the twentieth century, starting with the work of the proto-pragmatists Heidegger and Wittgenstein, and including the later work of poststructuralists such as Deleuze and Derrida. The non-modern approaches within this family tree of process-orientated creative approaches to knowledge have made much progress in parts of social sciences, humanities and elsewhere in the academy, but remain a minority stance.
With the exception, perhaps, of certain recent ‘post
This connection becomes quite clear when Bauman, quoting Derrida ( 1981 ), interprets the stranger as a ‘member of the family of undecidables ’, ‘unities that […] can no longer be included within philosophical (binary) opposition, resisting and disorganizing it, without ever constituting a third term, without ever leaving room for a solution in the form of speculative dialectics’ ( 1990 : 55, emphasis original). Bauman mentions three such ‘members of the family of undecidables ’ in Derrida's Dissemination ( 1981 ): firstly the pharmakon , a term that can
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins, and Clancy Wilmott
predictability has also generated significant debate.
Derridean deconstructionism distinguishes between the inevitability of ‘futur’ –
the future that is foreseeable and programmed – as against the impossibility of
predicting, which he terms ‘l’avenir’ – that which might come. The contrast
between an animated inevitable outcome and a stochastic, unknowable other
presents significant challenges addressed in several of our subsequent chapters. Futurity, for Derrida, remains open yet structured by history, and we
only access this through events that are yet to come about (Hodge
: Blackwell, 2008), 315. Original emphasis.
12 Heidegger, Being and Time, 206.
13 Martin Heidegger, ‘Language’ , in Poetry, Language, Thought, trans. by Albert
Hofstader (New York: Perennial Library, 1971), 187–210 (209–10). Original hyphenation. The reference to ‘difference’ here, and indeed the overall thrust of the argument, anticipates Derrida in a number of respects, at which point we recall the
latter’s apprenticeship as a student of phenomenology. Derrida’s work on the relations
between verbal language (as articulated by the voice) and writing in Of Grammatology
fundamental significance of the material world and its peculiar contradictions for allegedly autonomous digital domains.
This anecdote summarises what is at stake in the present chapter. As in the times of Barlow, Acid Phreak and Phyber Optik, today's enthusiasts of the virtual are juxtaposed with those who sourly point at continuities in wealth and power across an alleged digital–material divide. The often-asserted fundamental ambiguity of technology as pharmakon – both remedy and poison (Derrida, 1981 : 70) – enjoys continued relevance in relation to
Borders and images in migration narratives published in Norwegian
connected to positive memories of childhood. They introduce a vertical aspect to border-crossing, also discussed by Wolfgang Müller-Funk and Patricia García (Chapters 1 and 2 above).
To sum up this encounter with the North as a narrative of border-crossing: Amelie figures the border as a movement into the strange and the fantastic (cf. Schimanski, 2015 ), but also as a place of chiastic (A–B > B–A) mixing (cf. Derrida, 1992  ), in which something homely is projected into a foreign place. Her gaze forwards towards the border, from an
Maps as objects 225
From critical to object-oriented cartography
The critical cartography which arose in the 1990s (Crampton and Krygier,
2006) approach maps as texts (Harley, 1989), sign systems (Wood, 1993) and
social constructions (Crampton, 2001). In response to the dominance of the
communication model, which thought of maps purely as neutral tools to convey
geographical information, critical cartography sought to demonstrate how these
representations were in fact bound up with politics of power and knowledge.
Thus, building on Foucault and Derrida (Harley, 1989
Matrixial gazing in Tim Robinson’s walk-art-text practice
exhaustion for the other, and therefore is never a complete atrophy, not even when
one of the partial subjects totally disappears.Thus, the matrixial subjectivity may carry
from one to an unknown other, and also from one generation to another, the ‘trace of
the trace’ (Derrida) and the ‘mother of the mother’ (Fedida).39
Robinson’s evocation of the sound of shorelines suggests a matrixial surfing of
unknown others. He writes that
these indefinite but enormous noises are part of Connemara. Sometimes from my
doorstep on a still night I become aware that the silence is set in