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Towards a critical turn?
Yongjin Zhang

– either characterized as that of ‘problem-solving’ or that of ‘political realism’ – established its own institutional life in the Asia-Pacific? In this chapter, I interrogate the above questions through an examination of recent security discourses in China, using ‘critical’ lenses provided by ‘two main streams’ of critical security studies identified

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Ahmad H. Sa’di

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/19/2013, SPi 1 The formation of a discourse The need for a discourse In the autumn of 1948, while the eventful war was drawing to an end, David Ben-Gurion, who led the organized Jewish community – the Yishuv – to what has been described until recently in the media and history books as a miraculous victory, began his moves for the next stage. At the personal level, he had to reaffirm his leadership through a popular vote. In the international arena, he had to manoeuvre for international recognition of Israel without making

in Thorough surveillance
A Singaporean tale of two ‘essentialisms’
See Seng Tan

). At risk of oversimplification, two broad conceptual understandings arguably define how Singapore’s epistemic communities – comprising security scholars based at local research and policy institutes as well as universities – and their contributions to regional discourses have generally been viewed. The first understanding presumes an intentional subject, already given, who

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

accounts produced in other fields, or that it is the only profession that imports jargon from others. Certain tics of journalistic language are picked up by other producers of discourse on armed conflict and extreme violence. Journalists’ expectations – whether real or presumed – shape the work of many of their interlocutors, humanitarian workers included. But what is distinct about the borrowing I am talking about is that it involves describing war in ways that are produced

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Language, politics and counter-terrorism
Author: Richard Jackson

This book is about the public language of the 'war on terrorism' and the way in which language has been deployed to justify and normalise a global campaign of counter-terrorism. It explains how the war on terrorism has been reproduced and amplified by key social actors and how it has become the dominant political narrative in America today, enjoying widespread bipartisan and popular support. The book also explains why the language of politics is so important and the main methodological approach for analysing the language of counter-terrorism, namely, critical discourse analysis. Then, it provides the comparison drawn between the September 11, 2001 attacks and World War II and the attack on Pearl Harbor. One of the most noticeable aspects of the language surrounding the attacks of September 11, 2001 is its constant reference to tragedy, grievance and the exceptional suffering of the American people. The book focuses on the way in which language was deployed to construct the main identities of the protagonists. It demonstrates how terrorism is rhetorically constructed as posing a catastrophic threat to the American 'way of life', to freedom, liberty and democracy and even to civilisation itself. The book analyses how the administration's counter-terrorism campaign has been rhetorically constructed as an essentially 'good' and 'just war', similar to America's role in World War II. Finally, the book concludes that responsible citizens have a moral duty to oppose and resist the official language of counter-terrorism.

The genesis of Israeli policies of population management, surveillance and political control towards the Palestinian minority

Widely regarded as expert in techniques of surveillance and political control, Israel has been successful in controlling a native population for a long time. Despite tremendous challenges, it has maintained a tight grip over a large Palestinian population in the territories it occupied in the 1967 war. Moreover, it has effectively contained the Palestinian minority inside its 1948 borders. This book discusses the foundation of an Israeli discourse about the Palestinian minority, which Israeli leaders called birour or clarification, and the circumstances of its emergence and crystallization. It talks about the policy of constructing the Palestinians both as non-Jews and as an assortment of insular minorities. The fate of this minority was not only an Israeli internal affair but also an issue of concern to the international community. An analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks, and the role of state power in categorizing the Palestinians, follows. The book also analyses the ways state control and surveillance were implemented at the level of the locality. The book highlights the way state educational policy not just fostered the segmentation described earlier but promoted among students and educators. It then takes up the question of political rights and their meaning under the rule of Military Government. It concludes with personal reflections on the thousands of minutes, protocols, reports, plans and personal messages.

Power, expertise and the security industry
Author: Andrew Whiting

Constructing cybersecurity adopts a constructivist approach to cybersecurity and problematises the state of contemporary knowledge within this field. Setting out by providing a concise overview of such knowledge, this book subsequently adopts Foucauldian positions on power and security to highlight assumptions and limitations found therein. What follows is a detailed analysis of the discourse produced by various internet security companies, demonstrating the important role that these security professionals play constituting and entrenching this knowledge by virtue of their specific epistemic authority. As a relatively new source within a broader security dispositif, these security professionals have created relationships of mutual recognition and benefit with traditional political and security professionals. The book argues that one important product of these relationships is the continued centrality of the state within issues of cybersecurity and the extension of a strategy of neoliberal governance.

Pirates, rebels and mercenaries

This book is a story about the importance of stories in International Relations. It brings insights from Literary Studies and Narratology into IR and political science by developing a new discourse analytical method of narrative analysis. Focusing on the three narrative elements of setting, characterization and emplotment, the book argues that narratives are of fundamental importance for human cognition and identity construction. Narratives help us understand the social and political world in which we live. The book emphasizes the idea of intertextual narratability which holds that for narratives to become dominant they have to link themselves to previously existing stories. Empirically the book looks at narratives about pirates, rebels and private military and security companies (PMSCs). The book illustrates in the case of pirates and rebels that the romantic images embedded in cultural narratives influence our understanding of modern piracy in places like Somalia or rebels in Libya. Dominant romantic narratives marginalize other, less flattering, stories about these actors, in which they are constituted as terrorists and made responsible for human rights violations. In contrast, in the case of PMSCs in Iraq the absence of such romantic cultural narratives makes it difficult for such actors to successfully narrate themselves as romantic heroes to the public.

The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

, the scope of the interviewee pool allows for an examination of the policy discourse at the global level, especially among those disproportionately represented in policymaking. The majority of the interviews, 104 in total, were conducted remotely via Skype or telephone. Additional interviews, totalling 14, were undertaken in person in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States), Dubai (United Arab Emirates), and Beirut and Byblos (Lebanon). This article is divided into five sections. The first three sections examine, in turn, legal accountability efforts – or the lack

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

amalgamation that recognises the ‘everydayness’ of quantification, mediation and suffering ( Frosh, 2011 : 386). This account provides a counterpoint to some of the previous arguments concerning quantification by exploring the potentials of calculation to open up distinct, and morally desirable, spaces within humanitarianism. In doing so, we can see the potential of using the literature on ‘meaning’ (incorporating communication, representation, discourse and rhetoric) to explore

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs