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Authors: Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

This book regards Arab Islamism and liberalism as distinct political ideologies with all-encompassing views on the structure and appropriate roles of society and the state. The thesis presented here on the different functions of Israel and Zionism within these two ideologies refers to a protracted period of time. It also establishes several generalizations about the actions of individuals and groups in a vast geographic and linguistic space. The book first offers a chronological overview of the Islamist ideological opposition to Zionism. It portrays the main characteristics of and driving forces behind this resistance and explores the different pragmatic approaches toward Israel that have developed in the various epochs of Islamist thought. The book then discusses Islamist depictions of Zionism and Israel as role models and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations. It also offers a chronological overview of the evolution of liberal thought with regard to the Zionist enterprise. It depicts the various perceptions of peace and normalization created within this thought and demonstrates the contradictory ways in which the Arab liberal struggle for freedom and democracy has been intertwined with the Israeli-Arab conflict. Finally, the book discusses liberal interpretations that represent Zionism and Israel as role models, and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations.

Carmen Mangion

were structural and related to governance as discussed in the previous chapter; others were relational. In charting the shifts in relationships within the convent from the formal to the relational, this chapter turns to homosocial hierarchical and personal interactions that were a part of everyday life and identifies the conditions which shaped their formation, development and maintenance. It examines how post-war modernity impinged on these interactions and interrogates the meanings of the common life alongside the ways that generational discourse and lived

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
The place of religion
Karin Fischer

32 2 Social upheavals and discourses on Irish identity: the place of religion To understand the contemporary relationship between school and religion in the Republic of Ireland, and the policies and debates that affect it, one must take into account the wider changes at work in Irish society over the past forty years. The aim in this chapter is to offer an overview of these changes, of the place of religion in them and of the fluctuations in the dominant discourse on Irish identity, within the political sphere in particular. Many articles and books published

in Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland
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Religion and power in the Frankish Kingdoms: studies in honour of Mayke de Jong

This book, written in honour of Mayke De Jong, offers twenty-five essays focused upon the importance of religion to Frankish politics. It deals with religious discourse and political polemic in studies that take up the themes of identity, and the creative deployment of the language of the Old Testament within Frankish society. The book explores how the use of ethnic rhetoric in a Christian context shaped medieval perceptions of community. It shows that the Carolingian way of dealing with the Adoptionist challenge was to allow a conversation between the Spanish bishops and their Frankish opponents to take place. Charlemagne's role in the Vita Alcuini as a guardian of orthodoxy who sought to settle a controversy by organising and supervising a theological debate was striking. The book also discusses the admonition of an abbot of Frankish origin who came from southern France and made his monastic career in southern Italy. It showcases three letter manuscripts that share certain features but are different in other aspects. The first manuscript is a collection of the Moral Letters from Seneca to his pupil Lucilius , Paris , BnF, lat. 8658A. The book demonstrates that the lists of amici, viventes et defuncti reflected how the royal monastery was interacting with ruling elites, at different levels, and how such interactions were an essential part of its identity. It also examines the context of Monte Cassino's fading into the background, in the conviction that both political and religious concerns were at play.

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Contemporary relevance
Hayyim Rothman

, and certainly the democratization of Jewish learning that would have enabled women to participate in the discourse of anarcho-Judaism. If they fell short in the arena of women's liberation, proponents of anarcho-Judaism nonetheless welcomed, like other Jewish anarchists, other drastic political and social changes. Idealistic in intellectual tendency, they regarded historical materialism as a threat to the moral agency they deemed central to the making of revolution and to keeping revolutions on course toward their true goals. Either directly or

in No masters but God
Process or discourse?
Guy Halsall

of military service was quite different. What we might see here is weaponry as a sign of free status, in a context where graduations of freedom before the law seem to have been of increased significance, 35 rather than any sign of militarisation or otherwise. What would be interesting here, if my interpretation is plausible, 36 is how martial symbolism had become important in discourses of legal freedom or otherwise. Here we can see the polysemy I mentioned earlier

in Early medieval militarisation
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Fabian Graham

convergence of anthropological discourses focused on the concept of ontology, there is still no one cohesive approach within the ontological turn (Holbraad & Pedersen, 2017 ). Instead, one finds a generalisation of approaches which have been described as ‘the anthropology of ontology’ (Scott, M. W., 2013 ). This diversity allows for the selectivity of appropriate theories from within ontological discourse relevant to the subject studied and for further experimentation with ontological methodologies. Inspired by Descola (2013, 2014), M. W. Scott ( 2007 , 2013 , 2013a

in Voices from the Underworld
Chinese Hell deity worship in contemporary Singapore and Malaysia
Author: Fabian Graham

This study investigates contemporary Chinese Underworld traditions in Singapore and Malaysia, where the veneration of Hell deities is particularly popular. Highlighting the Taoist and Buddhist cosmologies on which present-day beliefs and practices are based, the book provides unique insights into the lived tradition, taking alterity seriously and interpreting practitioners’ beliefs without bias. First-person dialogues between the author and channelled Underworld deities challenge wider discourses concerning the interrelationships between sociocultural and spiritual worlds, promoting the de-stigmatisation of spirit possession and non-physical phenomena in the academic study of mystical and religious traditions.

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A baseline of comparison
Fabian Graham

Underworld tradition; for its continuation; and for the evolution of difference between the traditions in Singapore and Malaysia. The individual ‘technologies of religious synthesis’ are drawn from two existing discourses. First, from the politics of syncretism incorporating ‘appropriation’, where “Members of one culture are taking something that originates in another cultural context […] Sometimes items are freely transferred from one culture to another” (Young & Brunk, 2009 : 3–4); ‘absorption’, where in the process of acculturation

in Voices from the Underworld
Some observations on the militarised frontier society of eastern Francia around 600
Stefan Esders

disciplina as a catchword of public order suggest that political discourse within this society changed significantly. It would be naive to assume that all of what the normative texts tell us was easily put into practice. However, these texts themselves formulated and maintained a certain level of expectation – and this in itself should be seen as a historical fact that was based upon manifold preconditions, and for this reason should not be dismissed. Notes 1

in Early medieval militarisation