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The distorted identities of leprosy within the Order of Saint Lazarus
Rafaël Hyacinthe

documents dealing with welfare, as before. It is in the documentation that circulated in the West concerning the fighting taking place overseas. Echoes of these military engagements were widespread throughout the West through letters, chronicles and other descriptions copied and diffused among the ecclesiastical and lay communities. The first document that interests us is dated October 1244. The crusading army was then facing the Egyptians at La Forbie, a place located between Ascalon and Gaza. The Latin army was soon encircled, and thousands of crusaders were killed. A

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

, campaigns for greater rights for the disabled in the US have been linked by historian David Gerber to the impact of the Vietnam War. 86 Thus, veterans were the first major group to instigate the fight for greater recognition of disability rights. Reflecting the strongest aspect of disability activism and political interest, research into disabled veterans has been a major component of disability history. Understanding the quantification of sensorial symptoms poses a challenge of epistemological as well as historical significance and thus necessitates engagement with

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Michael Robinson

. The Anglo-Irish War The ongoing Anglo-Irish War, 1919–21, fought between the British state and the IRA, compromised the rehabilitation of disabled veterans in post-war Ireland. Violence between the two sides would escalate during the conflict, encompassing assassinations of British agents including administrative staff and intelligence officers, the British utilisation of the irregular ‘Black and Tan’ forces to escalate engagement with the militant republicans, and the formation of IRA ‘flying columns’ employing guerrilla tactics. Simultaneous

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Abstract only
The evolving relationship between infection and length of stay in antibiotic-era hospitals
Sally Sheard

hernias from 7.3 to 4.9 days. 18 The impact of new surgical techniques such as keyhole surgery in the 1980s facilitated shorter lengths of stay and more day surgery. Its widespread adoption also forced changes in hospital practices: patients now required tuition in changing dressings and domestic wound care. In the US, where a significant percentage of the population have traditionally relied on private health insurance, there was an earlier and more proactive engagement with health economics. This reflected the marketised nature of the healthcare business, in

in Germs and governance
How ‘dirt’ shaped surgical nurse training and hierarchies of practice, 1900–1935
Pamela Wood

the nurse was positioned through her scrupulous practice as the surgeon’s supporter, or through her slovenly ways as undermining his heroic efforts. Nevertheless, surgeons’ contribution of lectures, articles, textbooks and examinations shows their positive engagement in a pedagogy that would produce skilful, knowledgeable nurses, able to identify and take effective action against dirt in its most purulent form. The combined histories of pus, pedagogy and practice offer points for consideration in the present. History lets us take the long view. It teaches an

in Germs and governance
Coreen Anne McGuire

not been applied’. 48 It was even allegedly modified so that it could be used while driving. 49 As I have previously argued alongside Carel, the elements of co-production in its design origins involved engagement with the patient’s needs beyond the strictly medical. 50 For example, it was inconspicuous and could be easily disguised so ‘that there was no evidence of anything unusual except the quiet click-clack of the pulsator in another part of the room’. 51 The pulsator method was a relatively cheap and portable respirator which offered its users a relatively

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Steven King

constellation and complexion of the institutional treatment regimes afforded to the dependent sick poor, the triggers for seeking institutional sojourns, pauper and parochial attitudes towards such care and its place in a life-cycle of responses to illness, remain issues in need of substantial empirical exploration. Institutions and the sick poor253 This chapter will thus provide an overview of the constellation of institutional engagement, drawing on key lessons from Figures 4.5 and 4.8. It will contend that for the period as a whole the workhouse was the single most

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
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Architecture, asylum and community in twentieth-century mental health care
Sarah Chaney and Jennifer Walke

The Mansions in the Orchard project, funded by a Wellcome Trust People Award for Public Engagement, ran from September 2013 to March 2015. On behalf of the Bethlem Museum of the Mind, the authors carried out new historical research and documentation, alongside public engagement activities. The project addressed the largely undocumented twentieth-century history of inpatient mental health care in Britain through the

in Communicating the history of medicine
Open Access (free)
Bonnie Evans

complex models of self-governance in Britain. Yet, from the 1960s, such models have been placed under an increasing amount of pressure as radically new models of identity development in children began to come to the fore. In these new models, children could be regarded as social subjects with social rights regardless of their actual engagement in an idealised model of ‘the social’ and ‘society’. The new

in The metamorphosis of autism
Abstract only
Joris Vandendriessche

into a ‘science,’ it will be shown, cannot be understood without acknowledging the shared civil values that underpinned physicians’ scientific beliefs. Societies’ ambitions of advancing the sciences consisted of organizing debates, publishing journals, providing medical advice to the state and celebrating historical events – efforts that corresponded well to the values of social engagement, polite debate, a free press and a national historical awareness of the urban bourgeoisie. The history of medical societies therefore offers a new perspective on the relation

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium