Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye
perceived chiefs and customary law as closer to communities than
central government, but they called for reform ( Fanthorpe, 2006 ). On the eve of the Ebola outbreak, therefore, chiefs
maintained their power but it was not unchallenged.
Historical divisions between Americo- and African-Liberians have marked the fight for
power and socio-political identities in Liberia ( Ellis, 1999 ). During the political instability of the 1980s and the
fourteen years of civil war (1989–2003), these
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
https://crest2.sun.ac.za/african_evaluation_db/default/african_eval_db_01 (accessed 7 January 2020).
The details are analysed in this article, as the categorization of ‘evaluation’ by ReliefWeb differs from that used in this report (being much more flexible) and the USAID search function appears to include text references to nations, and the results require assessment, as was done for the evaluation reports on South Sudan included in this study.
ACF [Action Against Hunger]
. ( 2011 ), An Evaluation of ACF
doubt about the stable and renewed character of the West German state.
On the night of Christmas Eve 1959, the external walls of the synagogue in Cologne were smeared in red painted swastikas and anti-Semitic invective. In the weeks that followed, a multitude of anti-Semitic episodes – over 800 in seven weeks – occurred across the Federal Republic. The reaction to such numerous incidents, as described by the journalist Walter Hirsch, highlighted what at the time seemed to be the most disturbing elements of the wave of anti-Semitic events:
We were told – and by
), Peacebuilding and Friction: Global and Local Encounters in Post Conflict Societies ( Abingdon : Routledge ), 32–47 .
Mitchell , Melanie
( 2011 ), Complexity: A Guided Tour ( Oxford : Oxford University Press ).
Mitleton-Kelly , Eve
( 2003 ), ‘ Ten principles of complexity and enabling infrastructures ’, in Eve
Mitleton-Kelly (ed.), Complex Systems and
socialist party (Mapai)
among the Arabs. According to another, the Arabs are still incapable of establishing a political party by themselves, and we have to act among them by a way
of deception. We need to bring some Arab leaders from abroad (refugees), who
are influential among the Arabs and who can control them by oppression. ... The
two Arab Knesset members have no popular support and we cannot count on
them. (The Political Committee, 19 January 1950:9)
Indeed, on the eve of the elections for the second Knesset – held on 30 July
1951 – there was a feeling among
International Relations theory and the study of UN peace operations
Interventionism, 1991–1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, Former Yugoslavia and Somalia ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ).
Norwegian Institute for International Affairs ( 1964 ), The Oslo Papers ( Oslo : The Norwegian Institute for International Affairs ).
O’Brien , Conor Cruise
( 1994 ), On the Eve of the Millennium ( New York : Free Press ).
O’Brien , Conor Cruise
countries. As the
war approached, there was a high level of commonality in the rhetoric
and claims of the three governments.
Iraq’s possession of WMD was the central Australian
Government rationale for the invasion. As John Howard said on the eve of
war, “I would have to accept that if Iraq had genuinely disarmed, I
couldn’t justify on its own a military invasion of Iraq to change
Decisionmaking, intelligence, and the case for war in Iraq
Notwithstanding his public
statements from April to September 2002, the claims made in the
September 2002 dossier, his threat presentation on the eve of war, and his
explanation of the war’s origins as lying in intelligence to the
Hutton inquiry, Blair was subsequently obliged to shift his ground.
Unlike the Hutton inquiry, the Butler inquiry had access to intelligence
material. Counter to the impression given
my own – is a symptom of a
melancholic longing for a lost Israeli innocence.
Memory and identity
In May 2009, on the eve of Israel’s 61st anniversary, Columbia University
Teachers College published a study1 according to which 47 per cent of Israeli
Jews surveyed about the 1948 Nakba ‘believe expulsions took place’. While ‘46
per cent believe that Israel and the Arab/Palestinian people have been equally
responsible for the outbreak and continuation of the conflict’, 43 per cent
upheld the Zionist narrative primarily blaming the Arab/Palestinian people,
and 4 per
. Then there are International Relations authors who are not entirely forgotten but who have slid into partial oblivion. They live the life of the undead. Their texts are twilight classics, whose arguments are surrounded by myth and misunderstanding. One of these is Norman Angell, who warned against the threat of impending catastrophe on the eve of World War I. He began his most famous book, The Great Illusion [ 1910 ], with a warning: namely, that growing tension among Europe’s Great Powers made war likely. And if war should break out, Angell continued, the result