A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

perceived chiefs and customary law as closer to communities than central government, but they called for reform ( Fanthorpe, 2006 ). On the eve of the Ebola outbreak, therefore, chiefs maintained their power but it was not unchallenged. Historical divisions between Americo- and African-Liberians have marked the fight for power and socio-political identities in Liberia ( Ellis, 1999 ). During the political instability of the 1980s and the fourteen years of civil war (1989–2003), these

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

. Notes 1 https://crest2.sun.ac.za/african_evaluation_db/default/african_eval_db_01 (accessed 7 January 2020). 2 The details are analysed in this article, as the categorization of ‘evaluation’ by ReliefWeb differs from that used in this report (being much more flexible) and the USAID search function appears to include text references to nations, and the results require assessment, as was done for the evaluation reports on South Sudan included in this study. Bibliography ACF [Action Against Hunger] . ( 2011 ), An Evaluation of ACF

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Victor Adetula and Olugbemi Jaiyebo

nine. 32 The case was brought under the 1789 Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA) as supplemented by the 1991 Torture Victim Protection Act (TVPA), which allow foreign nationals to sue in the US Federal Court for a tort committed in violation of international law or US treaties. On the eve of the trial, the parties agreed to a settlement for all three lawsuits. Without

in African perspectives in international investment law
Leslie C. Green

chivalry. 76 These may have been the views in early times, but Tolstoy, writing in 1862, probably was correctly describing the attitude of many fighting men even today when he had Prince Andrew on the eve of the battle of Borodino, 1812, comment: 77 They preach at us about the laws of warfare, chivalry

in The contemporary law of armed conflict