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Coreen Anne McGuire

not. Full-body enclosure devices included: the Drinker respirator, the Drinker–Collins respirator, the Emerson respirator, the Henderson respirator, the Siebe–Gorman ‘Drinker’ respirator and the Both respirator. Devices that worked without full body enclosure included: the ‘Biomotor’ of Dr Eisenmenger, the Bragg–Paul pulsator, the Burstall jacket respirator, the London County Council Cuirass respirator, the Turner jacket respirator, the Laffer-Lewis apparatus and Eve’s Motor Rocking Bed. The latter worked on a different principle from the others: rather than using

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Intercession and integration in the medieval English leper hospital
Carole Rawcliffe

merely served to advertise the largesse of their benefactors. 116 In theological terms, at least, their intercessionary activities still represented a notable act of Christian compassion, which further increased the reserves upon which others might draw. According to that bastion of traditional religion Sir Thomas More, writing on the eve of the Dissolution, the recitation of prayers for the dead ranked as a work of outstanding merit, far greater than any act of philanthropy undertaken for the living. As he explained in The Supplication of Souls : Of all kynd of

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Michael Robinson

: Penguin, 2015), 3; Christopher Frith and Eve Johnstone, Schizophrenia: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 143. 140 Smith and Pear, Shell-Shock and its Lessons , 82–4. 141 Ibid., 108

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Coreen Anne McGuire

categorisation of deafness that the telephone enabled. This chapter has three main sections. 5 In the section below on ‘The deafened’, I explain the ways in which the First World War improved the technology available for use in telephony, while simultaneously creating the conditions of mass deafening that made such technology necessary. Before the First World War, noise-induced hearing loss was mainly a problem for the marginalised working class, but by the eve of the Second World War, hearing loss was regarded as a serious national health concern. This transition was

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Suriname and the Netherlands, 1863– 1890
Stephen Snelders

Indies, with much less direct Dutch control over the population, the hereditarian view of leprosy was embraced. However, in the Dutch West Indies, the international shift in medical thought towards a hereditarian rather than a contagionist view of leprosy did not affect the principle of segregation. The discussions show that developments in Suriname remained autonomous and were not directed from the Netherlands. New migrant labour The population of Suriname increased from almost 53,000 on the eve of the emancipation to almost 69,000 in 1898, of which only 833 were

in Leprosy and colonialism
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Jacques Gélis

: in other words it was frequently subject to this ‘internal pain’, this ‘pain in the guts’ which diminishes the individual both physically and mentally.4 In classical times the whole population, from the babe in swaddling clothes to the doddery old man, suffered  from ­bellyache.5 The symptoms themselves recalled baser functions: they were a prelude to the defecation which brought temporary relief, and as for women, who bore the inheritance of Eve’s original sin in their  very guts, they had in addition to endure the pains of childbirth in order to deliver what the

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
The Batavia leprosy asylum in the age of slavery
Stephen Snelders

disease.38 In 1849, the number of non-​infected person living in Batavia had risen to 104, or around 20 per cent.39 At the same time, the number of freed people in the asylum rose during the period of the ‘Great Confinement’ policy. In 1849, there were twenty-​one freed people out of a total of 498 segregated sufferers in Batavia, which represented only slightly more than 4 per cent. In 1852, this number reached 6 per cent (27 of a total of 454 segregated sufferers) only to dwindle again to 4 per cent on the eve of emancipation in 1862 (15 of 362 segregated sufferers

in Leprosy and colonialism
Abstract only
The end of campaigning, 1930s–1961
Lea M. Williams

Washington, DC area, including helping to orchestrate an invitation to have tea with Eleanor Roosevelt. 30 No doubt their social standing was further bolstered when Stein’s Everybody’s Autobiography was published in 1937 and acknowledged La Motte, who spent New Year’s Eve with Stein in Virginia and then drove her “through the rest of Virginia.” 31 Stein and Toklas’ trip brought the internationalism La Motte had once enjoyed to her; otherwise, La Motte’s international travel in the 1930s was limited: she took a trip to Panama in

in Ellen N. La Motte
Carol Helmstadter

just as competent in land administration as men. By the nineteenth century women participated in roughly 40 percent of all real estate transfers and, on the eve of the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, owned as much as a third of private property in Russia as well as serfs and urban real estate. Indeed, foreigners commented on the number of houses women owned in the cities. In short, Russian real estate law recognized women as the equals of men, giving them very considerable power within the family, and for noblewomen, an important role in the economic life of

in Beyond Nightingale