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A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

perceived chiefs and customary law as closer to communities than central government, but they called for reform ( Fanthorpe, 2006 ). On the eve of the Ebola outbreak, therefore, chiefs maintained their power but it was not unchallenged. Historical divisions between Americo- and African-Liberians have marked the fight for power and socio-political identities in Liberia ( Ellis, 1999 ). During the political instability of the 1980s and the fourteen years of civil war (1989–2003), these

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

. Notes 1 https://crest2.sun.ac.za/african_evaluation_db/default/african_eval_db_01 (accessed 7 January 2020). 2 The details are analysed in this article, as the categorization of ‘evaluation’ by ReliefWeb differs from that used in this report (being much more flexible) and the USAID search function appears to include text references to nations, and the results require assessment, as was done for the evaluation reports on South Sudan included in this study. Bibliography ACF [Action Against Hunger] . ( 2011 ), An Evaluation of ACF

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Amikam Nachmani

who were incapable of distinguishing their daughters from their wives. But Saddam went a step further: he urged that Kuwaiti oil reserves and their proceeds be placed at the disposal of all the Muslim and Arab peoples. It is easy to see why. On the eve of the Gulf War Kuwaiti production amounted to 59 million ton of crude, Iraq’s to 100 million, and both countries hold 20 percent of the world’s oil reserves. By comparison, Saudi Arabia’s production at that time was 322 million tons, 25.2 percent of the world’s reserves. 33 At the immediate

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Ahmad H. Sa’di

socialist party (Mapai) among the Arabs. According to another, the Arabs are still incapable of establishing a political party by themselves, and we have to act among them by a way of deception. We need to bring some Arab leaders from abroad (refugees), who are influential among the Arabs and who can control them by oppression. ... The two Arab Knesset members have no popular support and we cannot count on them. (The Political Committee, 19 January 1950:9) Indeed, on the eve of the elections for the second Knesset – held on 30 July 1951 – there was a feeling among

in Thorough surveillance
Abstract only
Kees van der Pijl

secretary of the province (oblast) of Zaporozhe in the east, a showcase of Stalinist industrialisation, whilst eastern Ukrainian party cadre dominated the central party hierarchy in Moscow. In turn, more than half of the Ukrainian Communist Party elite hailed from the key centre of Dnepropetrovsk.6 On the eve of the collapse of the USSR, Ukrainians and Russians accounted for 72 and 22 per cent of the population of Ukraine, respectively. In the first census after independence, in 2001, Russians had declined by 5 percentage points; three-​quarters of the 40 40 Flight MH

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War
Andrew Williams

’-based sections of the Covenant of the LON and in the broader Treaty itself and the ensuing disagreements between the major Allied powers, especially Britain and France, about how they should be implemented; the exclusion (partly as a cause and consequence of this mismatch) of three of the major powers – the United States, Germany and Soviet Russia – from the LON; and many of the clauses of the Treaty, seen as variously too lenient or too savage, depending on who was commentating. The situation on the eve of the Conference itself is the second main focus of the chapter, in

in Failed imagination?
Abstract only
Cerwyn Moore

’.23 The remains of Lazar were taken on a procession through holy sites in Serbia and eastern Bosnia, ending up at the monastery of Gračanica, ‘where the procession was welcomed on the eve of the 600th anniversary of the battle. It was during this parade that the concept of a “Heavenly Serbia” was reiterated by Jovan of Šabac-Valjevo.’24 The idea of rebirth marshalled by Milosević became entwined with religious symbolism, embedding further the idea of national salvation, led by the Serbian President. The epic narrative arc outlined in the last chapter required not

in Contemporary violence
Nikolai Vukov

the eve of and during the First World War As already remarked, the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 opened an entirely new page in the history of forced resettlements in the region. Whilst persecution and violent displacement of ethnic and religious groups was well known during the Ottoman period and was a customary feature of Ottoman rule, the extension of military action and the mutual extermination of different national communities were largely unseen until this time. In what would later be seen by some historians as a prototype to v 267 v Nikolai Vukov cases of ethnic

in Europe on the move
Ahmad H. Sa’di

elite and the institution of a Palestinian leader that he and Abba Hushi had undertaken: Abba Hushi and I had an experience of trying to find intelligentsia on the election’s eve. ... I am sorry to say that even five virtuous men we didn’t find. ... There was someone in the name of Nemri (most likely he was referring to Nimer Hawari, see chapter 7) who was supposed to fill in the role of leader, he betrayed us, then he returned, in the meanwhile, however, it became clear that he is worthless in the Arab community. (Ibid.:10/2) Another approach was put forward by

in Thorough surveillance
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

), which was seemingly implemented by mistake in Kafr Qasim 03_Ahmad_Ch-2.indd 34 8/20/2013 1:54:56 PM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/20/2013, SPi policies 35 on 29 October 1956 on the eve of the war that Israel, in collaboration with France and Britain, launched against Egypt. This operation resulted in the death of forty-nine Palestinians. While the official version was that soldiers and commanders misinterpreted the instructions, the language, the operational planning and the objectives that the perpetrators revealed in the court unambiguously echoed the plan

in Thorough surveillance