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Susan M. Johns

deployed on secular noblewomen’s seals from the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. Eighteen seals show a woman holding a hawk, and eight a bird of prey only.97 Traditionally the bird-of-prey motif has been seen to represent both high social status and secular life. Bedos-Rezak has suggested that the motif was gendered when depicted as an object being held by a standing female figure. She argued that the hawk shifts the emphasis from Mary to Eve and that it represents the beauty, the cruelty and the amorous conversation of women.98 Her interpretation is based on a

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
James Naus

of kings’. 5 In the late eleventh century, on the eve of the First Crusade, the sacred foundation on which French kingship depended only tenuously survived the increasing challenges from lower-ranking nobles. This is a crucial point, because up to the period of the First Crusade, castellans and other low-ranking nobles had not had the ability to challenge the sacral status of the French kings, or, more to the point, were not able to claim such a prominence for themselves. They were able to enjoy the ability to exercise real power, particularly as the knightly

in Constructing kingship
Jill Fitzgerald

likewise reveal Satan’s continued pursuit of space and territory as he operates a rival kingdom in hell and laments the fact that Adam and Eve will claim and settle his forfeited habitations in heaven – their own ‘rice mid rihte’ (kingdom through right, l. 424a) – with rihte denoting a clear legal and tenurial privilege. The poet also patterns Eve’s fall after Satan’s when her tempter invites her to see beyond the limits of ‘monnes geþeaht’ (human intellect) into the territory of heaven, making Genesis B a powerful comment upon the boundaries of proper Anglo

in Rebel angels
James Naus

communities in the Near East. Zengi had pledged to unify Muslims around a common goal of pushing the Franks out of the region, and he began this project in 1144 by attacking the Christian city of Edessa. Edessa had been the first crusader state to be founded (1098), and became the first to fall when Zengi’s troops captured the city on Christmas Eve. The Muslim army sacked the city in what was remembered as a particularly brutal scene. 11 Edessa’s fall had wide-ranging implications. The city had historical and religious significance, and also held strategic importance. The

in Constructing kingship
Abstract only
James Naus

‘crisis of crusading’ appeared, covering a period (roughly) from 1090 to 1110. Chapter 1 establishes the narrative and conceptual framework necessary to interpret this crucial period of crusading. In particular, it examines the state of Capetian France on the eve of the First Crusade. While many historians have considered this period, few have done so from a non-administrative perspective. That is to say, the prevailing narrative explains the rise of Capetian power in the early twelfth century in terms of fiscal centralization and land acquisitions that began at the

in Constructing kingship
Susan M. Johns

could have a deeper didactic purpose, although the messages in this example are ambiguous. The wife is portrayed in a gendered female stereotypical role as a cunning deceiver, a view which is of course reflective of a misogynistic Church view of women generally in medieval society and which stemmed from Eve’s role in original sin. Although Maurice of London had participated in the defeat of Gwenllian the ‘amazon’ he is then portrayed as simplistic and gullible with heavily resonant imagery which worked in multiple ways to evoke ambiguity

in Gender, nation and conquest in the high Middle Ages
Abstract only
Narrating conscience and consciousness
Eva von Contzen

mynd & flesch, had schamefully hyme ouercumyn þan, þane it had bene ony mane; for quhen he ne mocht eschewe to wyne man, he beguth at ewe; for-þi he wend sa he mocht Iulyane [haf] in fanding brocht.18 The demon roars (‘rare’; 134)  and is particularly unhappy about the fact that a woman, that is, the weaker sex both in spirit and flesh (‘brukil bath of mynd & flesch’; 137), has overcome him. His usual practice of tempting women whenever men prove to be too withstanding, the prime example being Eve (‘he beguth at ewe’; 141), has utterly failed. Not only does this

in The Scottish Legendary
Abstract only
Sally Mayall Brasher

clothing. 26 Bequests of goods could be quite diverse and required a good deal of organization and management to curate. In 1300 Andreas de Archuri gave Colombetta, among other goods, fifteen bushels of wheat annually to be baked into bread by the hospital brothers on the eve of San Quirico's day or the following Sunday. 27 In 1304 a woman testator with the intriguing name Negro Viola asked that Ospedale della Misericordia (Colombetta) receive money from her estate, which was then to be invested by the hospital; if the Misericordia failed, the benefits were to be

in Hospitals and charity
Stephen Baxter

English politics on the eve of the Norman Conquest. 1 W. M. Hinkle, ‘The Gift of an Anglo-Saxon gospel book to the Abbey of Saint-Rémi, Reims’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association , 3rd series 33 (1970), pp. 21–35. Throughout this paper, Anglo-Saxon charters are cited by the number assigned to them in P

in Frankland
An inquiry into the decline of pilgrimages and crusading
Charles T. Wood

against Christianity itself. 12 Unhappily for him, however, parallel Christian evidence shows that these assumptions rested on false premises. As demonstrated by the widespread popularity of De secretis mulierum (at least eighty-seven manuscripts survive, many wrongly attributed to Albertus Magnus 13 ), educated Christians were no strangers to all of the wilder myths about the dangers posed by menstruating women and their poisonously life-threatening menses. As a result, because menstruation was assumed to be one of the curses that God had placed on Eve for her

in Law, laity and solidarities