This book presents a rough translation of the Annals of Fulda (AF). By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. The AF are the principal narrative source written from a perspective east of the Rhine for the period in which the Carolingian Empire gave way to a number of successor kingdoms, including the one which was to become Germany. AF offer the major narrative account of the east Frankish kingdom from the death of Louis the Pious down to the end of the ninth century. The surviving manuscripts are only an echo of what must once have been a much more extensive transmission, to judge by the use made of AF by a number of later annalists and compilers. The brief description of the manuscript tradition must be amplified by looking at the content of the annals. For the years 714 to 830 the work is undoubtedly a compilation which draws on earlier annals, in particular on the Royal Frankish Annals and the Lorsch Frankish Chronicle, with occasional use of other smaller sets of annals and saints' lives. The account of the origins of AF was heavily criticised by Siegmund Hellmann in a number of articles written some fifteen years after the appearance of Friedrich Kurze's edition in 1891.
The Annals of Fulda and their
By the ninth century annals were one of
the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankishempire. 1 The earliest annals were
probably no more than brief marginal notes on the tables used for
calculating the date of Easter, but it was soon discovered that an account
of events organised year by year could be not simply an
winter meeting. Having retired to his own quarters to prepare the scedula , he returned to the court to deliver it in person. See De Jong, Penitential State , pp. 164–7.
15 In 810 the Frankishempire was struck by a cattle pestilence attributed in some quarters to poisoned dust. See Annales Sithienses s.a. 810, MGH SS XIII, p. 37: Boum pestilentia per totam Europam immaniter grassata est, et inde pulverum sparsorum fabula exorta. The story is fleshed out by Agobard of Lyons, De grandine et tonitruis c. 16, pp. 14–15, who relates that Duke Grimald of
(b. 823) was thirty-seven and Louis the German in his mid-forties.
Although in fact Lothar II died before his uncles, had he lived to
sixty as his father, grandfather and great-grandfather had all done,
he would have outlived not only Charles and Louis but perhaps even
their sons, and been in contention to inherit a substantial part of
the Frankishempire. 39 In 860, Lothar’s need for a legitimate son
example of the Romans’ (‘iuxta
exempla Romanorum’). 18 By the end of the eighth century, the conversion
had taken hold to such an extent that Anglo-Saxon clerics such as
Boniface were despatched to the continent to pursue missionary work in
the northern Frankishempire, and scholars such as Alcuin of York were
invited to join Charlemagne’s court school at Aachen.
The eighth century would come to be
permanent incorporation of Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary within the
community of Latin Christendom.
On a more general level, the
election of Henry I and advent of the Ottonians figured within a larger
historical trend that saw rulers emerge from among the aristocracies of
the FrankishEmpire to replace or at least rival the traditional ruling
house of the Carolingians. For the most part, these new rulers were
peoples, such as
Bede’s on the Anglo-Saxons and Irish, omitted
systematically. 97 The exception to this is the history of the
Lombards, furnished from Paul’s Historia , which had more
contemporary relevance given the Carolingians’ incorporation of
Italy into the Frankishempire after 774. Franko-Lombard relations
figure prominently and information on internal Lombard politics is