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Brigitte Kasten

was to be punished by death, in accordance with the harshness of late Roman penalties for incest. 39 But legal interpretation was needed to determine whether this decree covered stepmothers too, and whether it still applied after the father’s death. 40 Ecclesiastical norms and regulations for controlling them in the Frankish Empire Ecclesiastical marriage legislation, including the establishment of the prohibited degrees, and the prohibition of incest, in conciliar decrees, capitularies and penitentials, has been very thoroughly studied for the Frankish Empire

in Law, laity and solidarities
Maximilian Diesenberger

a crucial role all over the Frankish empire shortly afterwards. M. de Jong, The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814–840 (Cambridge, 2009), p. 113. I would like to thank Francesco Borri, Andreas Fischer, Marios Costambeys, Giorgia Vocino and Graeme Ward for comments on the text. All errors that remain are of course my own. 2 Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum VI, c. 40, ed. L. Bethmann and G. Waitz, MGH Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum saec. VI–IX, 12–219, p. 179. 1 The sermon De cupiditate by

in Religious Franks
Lower office holders
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

and more. The use of these terms varies through time, by region and sometimes by scribe. There are marked differences not only between the Anglo-Saxon world and the Frankish Empire but also on a smaller scale between Alemannia and Bavaria, and even between northern and southern Tuscany. However, the duties of these office holders in the Carolingian world often seem comparable and the titles interchangeable, at times even synonymous. This is evident also in the capitularies, in which office holders are listed as centenarii , vicecomites , vicedomini , locopositi

in Neighbours and strangers
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Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

, although at the end of his life, in 814, his son Louis was the only survivor and succeeded his father as ruler of the empire. Family conflict erupted in the rebellions of Louis’s three older sons, particularly after the allocation of territory to Charles the Bald, Louis’s six-year-old son by his second wife, Judith, in 829. 13 Following Louis’s death, in 840, the Treaty of Verdun split the Frankish Empire into three major parts: in 843 Charles the Bald was allocated the west, Louis the German the territories east of the Rhine and Lothar a Middle Kingdom; in 855 this

in Neighbours and strangers
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Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims
Matthew Bryan Gillis

of the martyrs Crispin and Crispinian who were believed in the ninth century to have suffered their passions – including being thrown into boiling pitch, lard and oil – at nearby Soissons. 50 Gottschalk, as a missionary-turned-Christianiser now persecuted within the Frankish empire for defending divine truths, seems to have viewed himself as much like these ancient martyrs who endured Roman persecution. As Ian Wood has shown, Carolingian hagiographers such as Alcuin and Rimbert emphasised the miraculous in conversions and Gottschalk envisioned this miracle as a

in Hincmar of Rheims
Kriston R. Rennie

-Denis’. 118 This pattern of monastic exemption becomes more apparent under Louis the Pious (814–40), whose dedication to Benedictine reform effectively conferred royal protection and grants of immunity to monasteries throughout the Frankish Empire. 119 When Charles the Bald granted privileges to Flavigny in 849, moreover, he stated very clearly that the monastery’s dominium no longer belonged to the diocesan bishop. Rather, it was emphatically placed under the king’s protection ( tuitio ), immunity ( immunitas ), and defence ( defensio ). 120

in Freedom and protection
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Kriston R. Rennie

, John’s contribution to the growth of monastic exemption was both important and significant. The constitutive element of protection ( tuitio ) in his exemption charters served to bolster the papacy’s position in granting and restricting specific right and freedoms within the ecclesiastical structure. For many French monasteries, the prospect of exemption was all the more accessible with John VIII’s physical presence in their lands. 101 The instability of the Frankish Empire – and the resulting insecurity of the apostolic see in the wake of

in Freedom and protection
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

perspective of those who intervened, while also bearing in mind the social dynamics occasioned by these interventions at a local level. War In most areas of early medieval Europe war was not an exception but the rule. 4 For example, Carolingian kings ordered military expeditions almost every year, sustaining the goal – from around about 800 – of obtaining plunder and tribute, but not conquering regions as before; 5 Annals from the Frankish Empire explicitly noted when there had been no wars during the year. 6 Contemporary writers applauded their kings for their wars

in Neighbours and strangers
James Naus

of the presentation by the patriarch of Jerusalem of several keys associated with the city that had been made for Charlemagne on the eve of his coronation in 800. 75 The story of Charlemagne receiving the keys was preserved in the Annales regni Francorum , a semi-official history of the Carolingian dynasty from the death of Charles Martel in 741 up to the beginning of Louis the Pious’s political crisis in 829. 76 The text was popular throughout the Middle Ages, appearing in a number of monastic inventories, particularly in the lands of the former Frankish empire

in Constructing kingship
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Hincmar’s world
Rachel Stone

. It is mainly from Hincmar’s own writings that Flodoard constructed his history of Rheims. Our own view of the Carolingian empire is also greatly shaped by Hincmar’s work. Hincmar was born within a decade of Charlemagne’s acceptance of the imperial title in 800; he died in 882, six years before the death of the last undisputed Carolingian emperor, Charles the Fat. His long life therefore encompassed the greater part of the Frankish empire’s existence. But Hincmar was not just a witness to the Carolingian ninth century. As archbishop of Rheims, he was one of its

in Hincmar of Rheims