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Ian Miller

programme drawn up in 1919 which had stipulated that: It shall be the first duty of the Government of the Republic to make provision for the physical, mental and spiritual well-being of the children, to secure that no child shall suffer hunger or cold from lack of food, clothing, or shelter, but that all shall be provided with the means and facilities requisite for their proper education and training as Citizens of a Free and Gaelic Ireland.22 The formal education of poorly nourished children also persisted as a problematic issue, despite earlier decades of agitation by

in Reforming food in post-Famine Ireland
Fintan Lane

imposition, with rapid cultural as well as economic implications, that ran contrary to the natural inclinations of the Irish people, who he claimed enjoyed a non-hierarchical, communistic clan-based society until as late as the seventeenth century, though it was under pressure from the time of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I: ‘As the dispersion of the clans, consummated by [Oliver] Cromwell, finally completed the ruin of Gaelic Ireland, all the higher education of Irishmen thenceforward ran in this foreign groove, and was coloured with this foreign colouring’ (Connolly, 1910

in Mobilising classics
The Provisional IRA and Sunningdale
Henry Patterson

Sinn Féin as a form of democratic socialism distinct from Western capitalism and Soviet-style socialism. Like the Irish socialist martyr James Connolly, it looked back to the Brehon laws for Gaelic Ireland for an indigenous tradition of communal property which was not to be updated into worker co-operatives in manufacturing, agriculture and fishing (White, 2006: 165). Having established their economic and social differences with the allegedly ‘Marxist’ Officials, the Provisionals advocated a form of federal government for Ireland with four provincial parliaments

in Sunningdale, the Ulster Workers’ Council strike and the struggle for democracy in Northern Ireland
Mary Pierse

1960s, the subsequent life in Denmark and then home revisited twenty years later. The contrasting attitudes of time and in place are obvious in pregnant Polly’s flight from home when faced with the uncontrolled rage of her parents whose stance Ní Dhuibhne links to their romantic ideas of a pure Gaelic Ireland. When she gets a job abroad three years later, Polly is relieved that ‘nobody cared whether or not you were a single mother in Denmark’. More than that ‘All the talk was of feminism and women’s rights and the country was packed with creches and kindergartens

in From prosperity to austerity
Ben Tonra

nationalism as an unbroken historical legacy. One early variant is that of ‘settler nationalism’ (Keatinge 1978: 24). The Williamite conquest of 1690 and 1691 had defeated the Jacobite coalition of Old English and Gaelic Irish and, through the Penal Laws, had established a Protestant ‘ascendancy’ in Ireland. Membership of that ascendancy, however, was restricted to those within the Established or Anglican Church. This excluded both the vast bulk of the Irish population that remained loyal to the Church headquartered in Rome as well as religious ‘dissenters’ in the non

in Global citizen and European Republic
Abstract only
Bernadette C. Hayes and Ian McAllister

very legitimacy of the state and its boundaries. At a conceptual level, according to Joseph Ruane and Jennifer Todd ( 1996 ), it is reinforced by three ‘sociocultural dimensions of conflict’ – religion (Catholicism versus various strands of Protestantism), ethnicity (Gaelic-Irish versus English and Scottish) and colonialism (native versus settler). At a practical level, ethnonationalism is reinforced by the primary agents of

in Conflict to peace
Abstract only
Úna Newell

legitimacy of its own embryo state institutions’34 and thereby tempered the appeal of violent forceful agrarianism. It is true that the Irish revolution did not seriously attempt a change in the social balance of power.35 Indeed, one struggles to hear the voice of Connolly or see the educational vision of Pearse and his desire for a Gaelic Ireland in the rhetoric and campaigns of a socially conservative movement that regarded agrarian militancy as something to be curbed and contained rather than channelled and harnessed. The Irish revolution was a struggle for national

in The west must wait
Úna Newell

Commission’s terms of reference were threefold: first, to define what constituted an Irish-speaking area; second, to inquire into the preservation of the Irish language; and third, to investigate the solution to the economic problems of the Gaeltacht. Besides the government’s dependence on the children of the nation to restore the language, it was the native speakers of the Gaeltacht who were relied upon to recover Pearse’s vision of a Gaelic Ireland. However, it was the government’s recognition, that any attempt to preserve the language in the Gaeltacht districts would be

in The west must wait
Marnie Hay

Colbert, who were executed for their roles in the 1916 Rising, ‘met their deaths, happy that it was for Ireland, sure of the heaven that awaited them. In boyish simplicity and purity, and with manly courage, they faced the firing squad.’ 84 Markievicz’s foreword to the second edition of the Fianna Handbook encouraged members to follow ‘the example and teachings of our heroic dead’. She reported that Liam Mellows ‘always urged on the Fianna the importance of educating and training their minds, in the principles and ideals that governed Gaelic Ireland’. 85 Mellows was

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23
Are there agreed components?
Sophie A. Whiting

, confirm a dogmatic theology of violence held by Irish Republicanism’ and ‘they intended to kill, and ultimately be killed, in order to resurrect Gaelic Ireland by means of a blood sacrifice which served to expiate sinful complacency and compromise’.33 The tradition of self-sacrifice and ­martyrdom is permanently embedded within the republican psyche. Allegiance to the tradition of republican martyrdom can be seen in discussions concerning hunger strikers. Hunger strikes in Ireland are commonly presented as a feature of political confrontation where the powerless people

in Spoiling the peace?