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Bryan Fanning

contemporary English verse to produce an authentic piece of Gaelic literature rooted in the society he came from: His language – that is its principal glory – is also a complete break with literary Irish. It is the spoken Irish of Clare … What Merriman aimed at was something that had never been guessed at in Gaelic Ireland; a perfectly proportioned work of art on a contemporary subject, with every detail subordinated to the central theme.33 Yet Merriman, ‘the intellectual Protestant’ and schoolteacher-farmer who somehow ‘knew as much about Lawrence and Gide as he knew of

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

perspectives, subordinated a pre-Enlightenment Gaelic Ireland to an imported modernity. In its crudest form the conflict was one between isolationists who sought to protect Ireland’s authentic culture, however understood, from outside contamination and their intellectual opponents. The politics of cultural nationalism since the death of O’Connell had presented the Gaelic revival as a cultural restoration. But Tierney on one side and O’Faoláin on the other acknowledged that what had been attempted was a ‘fake’ restoration, a reconstruction based on an idealised

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Laura Cahillane

Rousseau.  4 Pádraic Pearse, Collected Works of Pádraic H. Pearse: Political Writings and Speeches (Dublin, 1916), 263.  5 Tom Garvin, Nationalist Revolutionaries in Ireland: 1858–1928 (New York, 1987), 108.  6 Darrell Figgis, The Gaelic State in the Past and Future (Dublin, 1917), 17.  3 78 Themes and influences a motif which ran through Irish separatist thought, from Theobald Wolfe Tone through to the Irish state-builders. The fact that they could locate it in the Gaelic state was an added advantage. Another facet of life in Gaelic Ireland which appealed to the

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
Incipient fascism?
Thomas Linehan

introduction of limited self-government at the provincial level, provided by the 1919 Government of India Act, would have the effect of loosening the imperial grip in that country. 1 The forces of disintegration within the Empire were also thought to be at work in Ireland. Events there since 1916 had seen the eclipse of Irish constitutionalism and the resurgence of ‘physical force’ republicanism and an inclusive, self-consciously Gaelic, Irish nationalist movement embodied in Sinn Fein. 2 Sinn Fein’s electoral advances during the 1918 General Election would spread panic

in British Fascism 1918-39
Laura Cahillane

substantiation of the declaration contained in Article 2. The name of the State and the Irish language One of the ways in which it was attempted to prove to the people that this was a fresh start with a new trustworthy Constitution was to entrench the idea of a Gaelic Ireland into the Constitution. The people needed to feel that this was their State and their Constitution, and the introduction of Irish terminology helped to reinforce this.51 Furthermore, it was a signal to the rest of the world; our ancient language proved that we had always been a separate ancient nation. The

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution