of Osama bin Laden on 2 May 2011 in Pakistan by a special unit of the US Navy – a contentious act from the perspective of internationallaw. 20
Defining terror as a new form of warfare, as Münkler and others have done, is equally controversial. 21 Although the boundaries between war and terror have become increasingly blurred, it is important to note that wars still need to be declared and that the internationallaw of armed conflict prohibits any involvement of the civilian population in the combat. Terror attacks are characterised precisely by the fact that
: When Is Life Grievable? London: Verso.
Cronin, Patrick M., and Paul S. Giarra. 2010. ‘Robotic Skies: Intelligence, Surveillance,
Reconnaissance and the Strategic Defense of Japan.’ Center for a New American
Security, Washington, DC, December 2010. [Working Paper]. Accessed 1 December
Danner, Allison M. 2007. ‘Defining Unlawful Enemy Combatants: A Centripetal Story.’
Texas InternationalLaw Journal 43(1): 1–14. Accessed 4 December 2014. www.tilj.org/
photographers, and the video appears to
show that a number of the victims were shot and killed as they lay injured on the
ground: an act that would be in violation of internationallaw under the Geneva
Conventions. This is how WikiLeaks described the clip on its website:
WikiLeaks has released a classified U.S. military video depicting the indiscriminate
slaying of over a dozen people in the Iraqi suburb of New Baghdad –including two
Reuters news staff. Reuters has been trying to obtain the video through the Freedom
of Information Act, without success since the time of the
Truth and Lying in an Extra-Moral Sense.’ In Friedrich
Nietzsche on Rhetoric and Language, edited by Sander L. Gilman, Carole Blair and David
J. Parent, 246–57. New York: Oxford University Press.
Obama, Barack. 2009. ‘Inaugural Address.’ The White House, 21 January 2009. Accessed
4 December 2015. www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2009/01/21/president-barack-obamasinaugural-address.
Orford, Anne. 1999. ‘Muscular Humanitarianism: Reading the Narratives of the New
Interventionism.’ European Journal of InternationalLaw 10(4): 679–711.
Parasiliti, Andrew. 2009. ‘Iran
discursive context in which this book will intervene.
According to a 1996 decree issued by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic
of Armenia, the pedestal of what had formerly been Lenin’s statue in Yerevan –
a pedestal that for more than five and a half decades had proudly borne the
leader of the Bolshevik Revolution, before the statue was toppled in the heat
of the nationalist anti-Soviet wave in 1991 – was to be preserved, according to
internationallaw.2 Citing the importance of preserving historical monuments
regardless of their ethnic, religious or
Assassinations and bomb attacks in the late nineteenth and early twenty-first centuries
non-combatants. The British government, however, consistently refused to recognise this self-proclamation and in doing so also invoked internationallaw, which assumes that conflicts are between states and fought by their armies.
Figure 15 Police searching a dynamite factory in Birmingham.
Yet not all politically motivated groups condoning violence at the end of the nineteenth century distinguished between combatants and non-combatants. Attacks carried out in the 1890s by anarchist assassins on the European continent intentionally targeted bourgeois
industry and trade, nuclear proliferation, interethnic wars, the mafia and drug cartels, and finally, the present state of internationallaw. 38 Derrida’s book was a slight departure from the kind of post-Marxism that was championed by postmodern theorists, including Derrida himself. In his ironic revision of Hegel and Marx, he refuted the possibility of an end to new ideological formations, writing:
At a time when a new world disorder is attempting to install its … neo-liberalism, no disavowal has managed to rid itself of all of Marx’s ghosts
Yet the poster obscured the larger problem of misrecognition of a much
broader group of ‘Middle Eastern or Muslim looking men’ as terrorists signalled by Volpp above, and implicitly created a more appropriate object of
post-9/11 animus. As American human rights and internationallaw scholar
Karen Engle notes, ‘Whether through government investigations and raids or
“private” vigilance, the brunt of the internal war has fallen on Muslims, particularly those of Arab descent (now that Americans seem to have learned the
difference between Sikhs and Muslims).’50 In the
path to social progress. The revolutionary act, supplemented by cultural devices as the mediated form of subjective destitution, seeks to overcome this mediation and its logic of transgression. More concretely, this implies according a place to the state as a factor in the movement towards a higher stage of internationallaw, a global political federation that is able to counter the destructive action that free markets impose on working conditions and the public interest. 14 Over-identification is presented by BAVO as a form of cultural activism and defined as a
’, ArtAsiaPacific (May/June 2009).
58 Vali, ‘Her Cassandra Complex’. Cassandra’s father thought she was insane.
59 See, for example, Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin, The Boundaries of
InternationalLaw: A Feminist Analysis (Manchester: Manchester University Press,
2000); Geeta Kapur, When Was Modernism: Essays on Contemporary Cultural
Practice in India (New Delhi: Tulika, 2000), p. 30.
60 Murtaza Vali, ‘Her Cassandra Complex’.
61 Srimoyee Mitra, ‘Naked Bodies as Site of Social Change’, WRECK: Graduate Journal
of Art History, Visual Art, and Theory, 2:2 (2008), pp