Scholars and practitioners alike have identified interventions on behalf of Armenians as watersheds in the history of humanitarianism. This volume reassesses these claims, critically examining a range of interventions by governments, international and diasporic organisations and individuals that aimed to bring ‘aid to Armenia’. Drawing on perspectives from a range of disciplines, the chapters trace the history of these interventions from the 1890s to the present, paying particular attention to the aftermaths of the Genocide and the upheavals of the post-Soviet period. Geographically, they connect diverse spaces, including the Caucasus, Russia and the Middle East, Europe, North America and South America, and Australia, revealing shifting transnational networks of aid and intervention. These chapters are followed by reflections by leading scholars in the fields of refugee history and Armenian history, Professor Peter Gatrell and Professor Ronald Grigor Suny, respectively.
International health accounting in historical perspective, 1925–2011
resources and containing costs is a top priority, while in others, especially in the global South, improving access to health care, fairness in financing, and tackling health inequalities are also important considerations. By relating health spending to key outcome indicators, such as healthy life expectancy (HALE), national health accounting allows the assessment of health systems performance, a task which in recent decades has fallen to internationalorganisations including the World Health Organisation (WHO) and World Bank.
The Belgian case reveals the interaction between different visions of international order, transnational activism and diplomacy. In Belgium, the seemingly
pragmatic efforts of officials and scholars overlapped with the campaigns
of peace activists. This chapter therefore approaches the engagement with
questions of peace and internationalorganisation at different levels and traces
them across the First World War. It shows how support for the aims of peace
groups cut across the political spectrum, based on the understanding that
internationalism and national
study comes with a particular set of concerns that I have been mindful of in this research. 15 At the same time, I would not wish to reduce or objectify the lived human experience that lies at the heart of this study, so it is a question of balance and considered choices. I have drawn from personal testimonies in secondary sources, and from primary sources involved in working with refugees and arrivals.
Much of the history of humanitarianism research focuses on the narratives and policies of internationalorganisations and their wider regimes. This universalising
survived and developed in a variety of guises. At the level of church
diplomacy, Cardinal Mercier initiated a dialogue with the Church of England:
between 1921 and 1928, his ‘Malines Conversations’ brought Catholic clergymen together with figures such as the Bishop of Truro and Lord Halifax,
the British Conservative who later became Viceroy of India (1926–31) and
Foreign Secretary (1938–40). Meanwhile, new internationalorganisations for
Catholics were founded after the end of the First World War, ranging from the
Catholic Union of International Studies in Fribourg to
extensions of health systems as well.’ 128 Whilst developing countries
had focused on infant mortality and basic diseases of childhood
until the early 2000s, the growing focus on autism as a global
health crisis has encouraged internationalorganisations to shift
their attention to child mental health too, an initiative supported
by the WHO.
Whilst some researchers have drawn attention
diabetes and service guidance. Reflecting their historic concerns with service organisation, and engaging with mounting critiques of medicine made from within and without the profession, various professional bodies, internationalorganisations, and the BDA became increasingly concerned about standards of diabetes care over the last quarter of the twentieth century. The Royal Colleges and BDA, for instance, collaborated in drawing up guidance on service organisation in 1977, and audited the staffing and facilities available for NHS diabetes management in 1984. Into the
different arenas of discussion and governance, helped these figures to align recommendations of local and regional NHS authorities, elite professional bodies, internationalorganisations, and lay-professional and state-sponsored agencies. They thus provided sufficient agreement for managerial recommendations and infrastructures to emerge, and mediated potentially conflicting agendas. 106 Using government funding and activity, certain elite specialists and professional bodies helped set national standards and, through their production of tools for management, sat at the
Through a study of diabetes care in post-war Britain, this book is the first historical monograph to explore the emergence of managed medicine within the National Health Service. Much of the extant literature has cast the development of systems for structuring and reviewing clinical care as either a political imposition in pursuit of cost control or a professional reaction to state pressure. By contrast, Managing Diabetes, Managing Medicine argues that managerial medicine was a co-constructed venture between profession and state. Despite possessing diverse motives – and though clearly influenced by post-war Britain’s rapid political, technological, economic, and cultural changes – general practitioners (GPs), hospital specialists, national professional and patient bodies, a range of British government agencies, and influential international organisations were all integral to the creation of managerial systems in Britain. By focusing on changes within the management of a single disease at the forefront of broader developments, this book ties together innovations across varied sites at different scales of change, from the very local programmes of single towns to the debates of specialists and professional leaders in international fora. Drawing on a broad range of archival materials, published journals, and medical textbooks, as well as newspapers and oral histories, Managing Diabetes, Managing Medicine not only develops fresh insights into the history of managed healthcare, but also contributes to histories of the NHS, medical professionalism, and post-war government more broadly.
Throughout the 1990s, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) was forced to face the challenges posed by the genocide of Rwandan Tutsis and a succession of major outbreaks of political violence in Rwanda and its neighbouring countries. Humanitarian workers were confronted with the execution of close to one million people, tens of thousands of casualties pouring into health centres, the flight of millions of others who had sought refuge in camps and a series of deadly epidemics. Where and in what circumstances were the MSF teams deployed? What medical and non-medical assistance were they able to deliver? Drawing on various hitherto unpublished private and public archives, this book recounts the experiences of the MSF teams working in the field. It also describes the tensions (and cooperation) between international humanitarian agencies, the crucial negotiations conducted at local, national and international level and the media campaigns. The messages communicated to the public by MSF’s teams bear witness to diverse practical, ethical and political considerations. How to react when humanitarian workers are first-hand witnesses to mass crimes? How to avoid becoming accomplices to criminal stratagems? How to deliver effective aid in situations of extreme violence? This book is intended for humanitarian aid practitioners, students, journalists and researchers with an interest in genocide and humanitarian studies and the political sociology of international organisations.