a year each, in the very same way that library copies of the Illustrated London
News or Punch do for us. It is this Victorian urge to characterize each year
(55 BC is JuliusCæsar, AD 1215 a Baron of the Magna Carta, AD 1630 Civil
War and so on) that has persisted to the extent that 1848 and 1851 are seldom
considered together, but rather as separate and discrete volumes, each with
their own personality. However, with the digitization of nineteenth-century
sources, such as newspapers, and the a bility to search across titles and years it
is possible to begin to
This book analyses Anna of Denmark’s material and visual patronage at the Stuart
courts, examining her engagement with a wide array of expressive media including
architecture, garden design, painting, music, dress, and jewellery. Encompassing
Anna’s time in Denmark, England, and Scotland, it establishes patterns of
interest and influence in her agency, while furthering our knowledge of
Baltic-British transfer in the early modern period. Substantial archival work
has facilitated a formative re-conceptualisation of James and Anna’s
relationship, extended our knowledge of the constituents of consortship in the
period, and has uncovered evidence to challenge the view that Anna followed the
cultural accomplishments of her son, Prince Henry. This book reclaims Anna of
Denmark as the influential and culturally active royal woman that her
contemporaries knew. Combining politics, culture, and religion across the courts
of Denmark, Scotland, and England, it enriches our understanding of royal
women’s roles in early modern patriarchal societies and their impact on the
development of cultural modes and fashions. This book will be of interest to
upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on early
modern Europe in the disciplines of Art and Architectural History, English
Literature, Theatre Studies, History, and Gender Studies. It will also attract a
wide range of academics working on early modern material and visual culture, and
female patronage, while members of the public who enjoy the history of courts
and the British royals will also find it distinctively appealing.
education in France. His absorption of the tenets of History painting
had won him spectacular success in the earlier Palace of Westminster
competitions. His cartoon The Landing of JuliusCaesar had won
him £300 and the commission for his two frescoes in charcoal,
The Spirit of Religion . 41
The subject of Armitage’s entry was The Battle of
Meeanee , the most decisive of Sir Charles Napier’s encounters
paradox. As a result of his research Time might well
wonder whether what is anticipated in 1851 is a revolution or an exhibition,
or perhaps both.
Of the years he calls forth from his volumes the first to appear is The
Year One, a decrepit child, followed by JuliusCæsar, a Baron who signed the
Magna Carta, and then Charles I and Cromwell. On searching out the French
Revolution, personifications of the years 1792, 1830 and 1848 all rush out at
once. Time turns to 1815, the personification of Peace, who directs him to the
year 1851. But, rather than
: Stanford University Press, 2004), pp. 138–
9 Martineau, ‘Crystal Palace’, 537.
10 Ibid., 538.
11 Ibid., 544.
12 Ibid., 546, 548–9.
13 Ibid., 545.
14 For example, we find nearly thirty comparative, adjacent pairs of busts of the
same sitter; more disparate pairs of Hadrian and Livia Drusilla; a disparate
trio of Scipio Africanus and adjacent trio of Glucks and Napoleons; and no
less than four versions of JuliusCaesar.
15 Phillips, Portrait Gallery, p. 75.
17 Ibid., p. 111.
18 Ibid., p. 172.
19 Ibid., p. 180.
20 Ibid., p. 178. For more on
’s architectural books survive at Worcester College, Oxford: Andrea
Palladio, I quattro libri dell’architettura (Venice, 1601); Gioseffe Viola Zanini, Della
architettura di Gioseffe Viola Zanini (Padua, 1629). His copy of Sebastiano Serlio’s
Tutte l’opere d’architettura survives in the Royal Institute of British Architects Book
Library: Sebastiano Serlio, Tutte l’opere d’architettura et prospettiva (Venice, 1619).
Also surviving at Worcester College, Oxford are six non-architectural books:
Hieronymus Cardanus, De subtilitate (Lugdunus, 1559); JuliusCaesar Scaligerus,
the Exchequer; Sir JuliusCaesar, Master of the
As stressed previously, it must be remembered that this was a perception James
personally promoted, and it did not prevent him from concurrently seeking armed
resolutions to conflict. On this duality see Murdoch, ‘James VI’, 3–31; S. Murdoch
and A. Grosjean, Alexander Leslie and the Scottish Generals of the Thirty Years’ War,
1618–1648 (London, 2014), 30–33, 39, 40–43.
See the Introduction and Chapter 1, with Chamberlain observing Jones beginning
to build in June 1617; McManus, ‘Memorialising Anna of Denmark
presents Aetna as symbol of cosmic disorder in a list of portents following the murder of JuliusCaesar and presaging the Battle of Philippi. Thus he remythologizes Lucretius and blurs and problematizes the clear and certain contours of the Epicurean universe. For this see M. R. Gale, Virgil on the Nature of Things (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 122–123.
29 ‘liquefactaque saxa sub auras / Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exestuat imo,’ Virgil, The Aeneid , bk III, cap. 23, 577–578). The translation (slightly amended) is from The Works of
Ficino, Jean Fernel, and JuliusCaesar Scaliger were fundamental figures for Bacon, Descartes, Gassendi, Hobbes, Leibniz, and Newton.
105 ‘Se le osservazioni del Boyle, dell’Hegenardo, del VVillis, voglion che ’l sangue si nutrisca dagli elementi nitrati dell’aria; che si riscaldi nella fucina del cuore, donde schizza impetuoso alle vene, e con tortuoso Meandro di continovi circolamenti vi ritorna a ricucersi, e raffinarsi; che ammortito si affoghi, se non si sventola ò per gli spiragli della Trachea, ò per l’aperture de’ pori, che tratto fuor de’ corpi, si