In Bellum Ciuile 5, JuliusCaesar – who has already cut a swathe through Italy and conducted a destructive campaign in Spain – finally ends up battling with nature itself, when he attempts to sail from Brundisium to Dyrrachium. In the confident expectation that with Fortune on his side a storm will prove no obstacle to his desires, he embarks upon the sea in a tiny boat, amidst the protests of the owner, the lowly Amyclas ( BC .5.476–721). Before setting off, however, he attempts to impress and bribe the humble sailor:
Representations of Irish political leaders in the ‘Haughey’ plays of Carr, Barry and Breen
money in thy purse’ as the more apposite. But
the Shakespeare play which most proliferates intertextually in Charlie
is JuliusCaesar. Charlie himself, in recalling his meeting with Margaret
Thatcher, invokes the figure of Caesar and his ‘great campaigns’ (p. 43)
to lament the fact that ‘I would never be tested on a great stage’. The
references to the play itself are most prominent when he and his backers
are considering the heave against Jack Lynch. To P.J. Mara’s query as
to whether it is too soon, Haughey responds: ‘There is a tide [in the
affairs of men,] which
artistic director and co-founder of
Loose Canon Theatre Company (1996) leads a full-time ensemble of
performers in an ongoing actor training programme. The company’s
philosophy foregrounds the role of the actor in the theatre experience.
Since 1996 they have produced principally works of Elizabethan and
Jacobean drama ( JuliusCaesar, Coriolanus, Hamlet, Macbeth, The
Revenger’s Tragedy, The White Devil, The Duchess of Malfi) as well
as modern European classics such as Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler. In overtly
claiming a genealogy of performance/directing, Byrne is remarkable for
novel, like the play, begins, and in the central plot, concerning the murder of a head of state by an ambitious underling, who is then haunted, literally and metaphorically, by his deeds. The novel also reper-forms the tragedy of JuliusCaesar , which offers a dramatic prefiguration of the plot-line in which the protégé of a political leader becomes his assassin.
Rushdie summons the spirit of tragedy in Shame for a number of reasons. In the first place the strong intertextual bond between Rushdie’s novel and tragic narrative serves to
begin to emerge
between Kilpatrick’s slaying and the assassination of JuliusCaesar,
as depicted in Shakespeare’s famous play. When Ryan delves deeper
still, he also finds connections (some of them linguistic) with
Eventually the truth emerges: Kilpatrick was a traitor who, once
his treachery had been exposed, agreed to participate in an elaborate theatrical performance designed to cement his own heroic
profile and thus to expedite the revolution. Kilpatrick must be
assassinated, and his ‘martyrdom’ must become a rallying point for
those whom he had betrayed
particularly affronted by Scroop’s
The Judas kiss
treason that he likens it to ‘Another fall of man’ (477). Coriolanus
points up the potential contradictions between political allegiance
and personal integrity: the tragic hero’s resolute desire to remain
‘constant’ (703) to himself soon implicates him in ‘Manifest treason’ (718). While in a famous speech from another of the Roman
tragedies, JuliusCaesar, Antony uses rhetoric to unpick the rhetorical distinction between honour and treason (834–6).
In many of the plays, interpersonal deceit and political treason are
queen is Cleopatra, who escorted JuliusCaesar along the Nile.
61] Ganges: river in northern India, sacred to Hindus.
62] Banians: Hindu traders.
63–64] calcined; purifying waves: Hindu dead are cremated (calcined: turned to ashes),
and their ashes are thrown into the water of the Ganges.
69] Tiber; Horatius’ valour: The Tiber is the river on which Rome stands. Horatius
Cocles (530–500 BC) defended the Sublician bridge against invasion, and swam
back across the Tiber in full armour once it had been demolished (Eardley, Lady
object of the Israelites’ idolatry; see Exodus 32:4.
99] Basan bull: a notoriously strong bull from the fertile region of Bashan (Psalm
22:12). Cavendish puns on ‘Basan’ and ‘brazen’ (of brass).
101] Mahomet: Proverbially, Mahomet called the mountain to come to him.
103] Pompey: a Roman leader, defeated by JuliusCaesar and then killed.
When killed was Caesar, his great enemy.
The wooden-horse that did great Troy betray,
Have told what’s in him, and then run away;
Achilles’ arms against Ulysses plead,
And not let wit against true valour
jumping between two kinds of neck breaking sets up a
pattern that continues to code the development of the letter.
The next thing Lovelace discusses is his own disinclination
to write: ‘how can I think it in my power to divert, when
my subject is not pleasing to myself’. Comparing himself to
JuliusCaesar, Lovelace next swings from considering the
melancholy of having achieved everything he had set out to,
to interrupting himself with the thought that having resorted
to rape he has achieved nothing at all: ‘why say I completed?
when the will, the consent, is wanting
‘Et Tu, Healy’, in which the precocious writer likened
the relationship between Parnell and Tim Healy – trusted lieutenant
and chief agent of the fall – to that (as portrayed in the Shakespeare
play) between JuliusCaesar and his friend Brutus.
It was at this point, Ellmann explains, that ‘the word betrayal
became a central one in Joyce’s view of his countrymen’ (1959: 32).
That sense of betrayal, however, was not only political. Parnell’s
great sin, after all, was to be implicated in a series of personal relationships which undermined the institution of marriage