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Yann Martel’s lonely book club
Zalfa Feghali

and child on the street, can engage with and react to’ (p. 222). Harper’s cuts to arts and culture funding serves only, according to Martel, to disempower citizens; in the letter accompanying dispatch 51, William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Martel asks Harper directly, ‘Is it really your aim to transform Canada into a post-​literate society?’ (pp. 217–​18). In using literature and the act of reading as an act of resistance, then, Martel works to galvanise his readers to enact their own resistance to Harper’s policies (and politics). Ultimately, Martel never

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship
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The third American NWO – the Clinton and Bush presidencies, 1990–2006
Andrew Williams

:27:07 Conclusion 303 aspects of the Roman Empire, especially under Julius Caesar and Augustus. One typical passage goes thus: Seldom has the government of the world been conducted for so long a term in an orderly sequence … The carrying out of the Latin–Greek civilising process in the form of perfecting the constitution of the urban community and the gradual bringing of the barbarians or at any rate alien elements into this circle, were tasks, which, from their very nature, required centuries of steady activity and calm self-development.79 Moreover, Mommsen was sure that the

in Failed imagination?
Evgeny Roshchin

for this agreement with Rome (‘amicitiam et foedus petentibus’) and of the Senate and people of Rome granting the treaty of friendship, when deserved (‘foedus et amicitia dabuntur, cum meruerit’) (Sallust, The War with Jugurtha CIV, 4; also CXI, 1). Naturally, if someone is in a position to accept requests and grant agreements, there should be a possibility to reject friendship (‘repulsum ab amicitia’, ibid. CII, 13). Secondly, the literature abounds in examples of contracted or formed amicitia. Julius Caesar makes use of amicitia populi Romani in this way in his

in Friendship among nations