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B. A. Wortley
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
The case of the management of the dead related to COVID-19
Ahmed Al-Dawoody

This article studies one of the humanitarian challenges caused by the COVID-19 crisis: the dignified handling of the mortal remains of individuals that have died from COVID-19 in Muslim contexts. It illustrates the discussion with examples from Sunni Muslim-majority states when relevant, such as Egypt, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco and Pakistan, and examples from English-speaking non-Muslim majority states such as the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada and Australia as well as Sri Lanka. The article finds that the case of the management of dead bodies of people who have died from COVID-19 has shown that the creativity and flexibility enshrined in the Islamic law-making logic and methodology, on the one hand, and the cooperation between Muslim jurists and specialised medical and forensic experts, on the other, have contributed to saving people’s lives and mitigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Muslim contexts.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain
Author: Diana Donald

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

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Constructing a Gibraltarian identity
Stephen Constantine

absurd to imply that the ebbing of formal British control over what had once been a quarter of the world’s land surface left behind no residue. One huge legacy from the ‘British World’ has been institutions, and in particular instruments of government and administration. The emphasis placed on law courts, law making and legal administration in this study should have been sufficient to make plain the fact that these institutional features and these forms of administrative practice were early introduced into Gibraltar. Law, properly formulated by ordinances and orders

in Community and identity
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Empire and law, ‘Firmly united by the circle of the British diadem’
Dana Y. Rabin

, Irish, Scottish, and French Catholics who would benefit from religious toleration; Britain's multinational and multiracial sailors at the Empire's front lines; and Irish Protestants fighting to retain their own law-making body in Dublin. During the latter half of the eighteenth century the movement for legal reform did attempt to accommodate internal outsiders by instituting changes that brought the

in Britain and its internal others, 1750–1800
Its culture and its conflicts
Diana Donald

-​ knackers’ yards and pits for fighting dogs through eyewitness accounts and engravings, adopting the kind of shock tactics that had often been used in propaganda against West Indian slavery. The Association’s leaders believed that working on public opinion in this way would prevent the abuse of animals, and obviate the need for the prosecution of offending individuals.19 However, the opposite approach was taken by the honorary secretary of the RSPCA, Lewis Gompertz, who insisted that reformist law-​making always initially ‘forced its benefits upon an unwilling public

in Women against cruelty
Its culture and its conflicts
Diana Donald

secretary of the RSPCA, Lewis Gompertz, who insisted that reformist law-​making always initially ‘forced its benefits upon an unwilling public’ through surveillance and exemplary punishments.20 Believing as he did that animals have minds and sensibilities equivalent to those of humans, he viewed cruelty towards them as a crime strictly analogous to the murder or serious injury of men and women, and thought it should be treated just as seriously.21 Personal animosities as well as anti-​Semitism were involved in this bitter dispute (Gompertz was Jewish), but for the

in Women against cruelty (revised edition)
Oral testimonies of gender oppression
Biswamoy Pati

prepared to take her back initially. After a lot of persuasion they were made to change their minds. However, the harassment of the girl continued, including her father-in-law making an attempt to sexually molest her by asking her to sit alone with him in a locked room, on the pretext that it would help drive away the influences of evil spirits. It was clear that the father-in-law’s intention was to rape her, but fortunately she was able to avoid this. In the meantime, news about the harassment reached Anima’s parents at Bhubaneshwar. Traumatised, they asked her to

in South Asia from the margins
Stephen Constantine

1833 and 1839, indicating the increased anglicisation of Gibraltar’s legal culture. They bore especially on such subjects as property, coinage, criminal law, legal administration and penal policy. But overwhelmingly, ordinances specific to Gibraltar, drafted locally and approved centrally, sought to guide and control civilian life: a total of 312 in just over eighty years. Of course, the number of laws, and particularly of amended laws, may indicate only initial bad drafting inappropriate to need, but more likely repeated law making on the same subject was indicative

in Community and identity
Fergal Casey

certain wages’.57 Inseparable is the right to organise. Marx despised union advocates but regarded them as heralds of revolution.58 Manning, however, aimed to stave off revolution with economic reform as surely as he wished to stave off Irish republicanism with political reform. He situates unions in Roman law, making them an ancient institution re-instated against rapacious capitalists. Manning advocated ‘interference’ in the free-market by quoting Pitt’s incendiary 1800 arbitration act speech: The time will come when … it will be in the power of any one man in a town

in Irish Catholic identities