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Anthony Amatrudo and Regina E. Rauxloh

of law-​making itself, myths are created and retained. Ronnie Lippens has carved an international reputation through his use of both philosophical and artistic insights into the criminological canon. In his chapter, ‘Forward! Coding, decoding and recoding order in public art for urban regeneration’, he explores how public artworks are themselves part of a system of coding and recoding that informs both our ethics and our aesthetics. His contribution explores the coded dimension of large public artworks (sculptures or installations in particular). Public space is

in Law in popular belief
The case of the management of the dead related to COVID-19
Ahmed Al-Dawoody

This article studies one of the humanitarian challenges caused by the COVID-19 crisis: the dignified handling of the mortal remains of individuals that have died from COVID-19 in Muslim contexts. It illustrates the discussion with examples from Sunni Muslim-majority states when relevant, such as Egypt, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco and Pakistan, and examples from English-speaking non-Muslim majority states such as the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada and Australia as well as Sri Lanka. The article finds that the case of the management of dead bodies of people who have died from COVID-19 has shown that the creativity and flexibility enshrined in the Islamic law-making logic and methodology, on the one hand, and the cooperation between Muslim jurists and specialised medical and forensic experts, on the other, have contributed to saving people’s lives and mitigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Muslim contexts.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

William Schabas

revolution, with war crimes being enlarged to encompass non-​international armed conflict and crimes against humanity being extended to acts perpetrated in peacetime. The seminal moment was the October 1995 judgment of the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia known as the Tadić Jurisdictional Decision.31 Three years later, this dramatic exercise in judicial law-​making was confirmed in Articles 7 and 8 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Seemingly, momentum to modify the definitions of war crimes and crimes

in Fifty years of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Abstract only
Gary James

connected cities’ are the key to ‘fostering cohesion’, adds to the significance of studying city-­regions and their sporting developments.5 Prior to 1919 Manchester was the scene of a series of developments which 2 The emergence of footballing cultures saw football banned; a professional League established; an international lawmaking body created; an offshoot of rugby developed; the finest club stadium in England constructed and another major one in the planning stage; participants fighting for rights and establishing their union; scandal rocking the footballing

in The emergence of footballing cultures
Michael Byers

Introduction Most of humanity shares two searing memories: the collapse of the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001; and a hooded man standing on a box with wires dangling from his outstretched hands. These images capture the painful truth that both sides in the so-called ‘war on terror’ have violated fundamental rules. But while non-state actors can violate international law, only states are able to change the law, making their breaches of greater potential consequence. In this chapter, I consider how the recent actions of the United States

in ‘War on terror’
Jérémie Gilbert

mechanisms, indigenous peoples have often found a wall in front of them. For not being State actors, for being marginalised in their own country, and for not being able to have direct access to international institutions, indigenous peoples have often been left out in the cold, not having access to law making and monitoring processes. While the situation has recently been addressed notably with the establishment of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, giving indigenous peoples direct access to UN circles, it is important to recognise that very early on CERD has

in Fifty years of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
A critical study of social media discourses
Marie Sundström and Hedvig Obenius

, 1997). Moreover, it is not just the discourses that occur in the incipient stages of the law-making process that legitimise law. Habermas argues that ‘Deliberative politics acquires its legitimating force from the discursive structure of an opinion- and will-formation that can fulfil its socially integrative function only because citizens expect its results to have a reasonable quality’ (Habermas, 1996, p. 304). The implementation of law, and the outcome of such, is critically reviewed in the public discursive formation of opinion (Habermas, 2006). Public opinion in

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
The Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission and Garda accountability
Vicky Conway

internal accountability. Legal accountability is often the most visible face of accountability, often bearing the brunt of expectations: the British police are ‘answerable to the law’, making them ‘the most accountable and therefore the most acceptable police in the world’ (Mark, 1977 :56). In practice, legal accountability refers to complaints systems and to civil and criminal actions. The courts can have a role in imposing legal accountability, but criminal and civil actions are difficult, lengthy and costly, pitting citizens and police in adversarial

in Defining events
Anthony Amatrudo

that endeavour, are now more interesting to researchers than the technical nature of the ways in which specialists go about law and law-​making. Indeed, there has been a great deal of scholarship given over to this phenomenon centrally, but not exclusively, around the interplay of the law and the way in which it is consumed through the use of the Internet, films and television and also in terms of the performativity of law, notably in relation to post-​modernity. However, the problem of legal language and the ways it is consumed, represented and reflected to the

in Law in popular belief