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Inalienability of church property and the sovereignty of a ruler in the ninth century
Stefan Esders and Steffen Patzold

21 From Justinian to Louis the Pious: inalienability of church property and the sovereignty of a ruler in the ninth century Stefan Esders and Steffen Patzold Mayke de Jong has vastly transformed our picture of the Carolingian period in the course of surveying the relationship between politics and religion anew. She has shown how misleading the dichotomy between ‘Church’ and ‘State’ is, which has structured numerous historical works on ninth-century Francia since at least the nineteenth century. The ecclesia was, in the discourse of the time, far more than just

in Religious Franks
On Hincmar’s use of capitularies
Philippe Depreux

particular type of normative text. 3 Devisse identified around fifty capitulary citations, of which all those from texts dated before 826 were taken from the collection compiled by Ansegis, abbot of St-Wandrille. 4 Even when Devisse referred to the original capitulary, this was in fact also in Ansegis. 5 This confirms once again the importance of this collection put together under Louis the Pious, which Hincmar knew well, since he had several copies of it made. 6 Devisse was however more interested in the texts that were cited than in the place

in Hincmar of Rheims
Philippe Depreux

20 The Penance of Attigny (822) and the leadership of the bishops in amending Carolingian society Philippe Depreux Penance is a main topic in Louis the Pious’s reign, as Mayke de Jong’s book on the crisis of the late 820s and early 830s brilliantly shows.1 The most dramatic moment is the emperor’s deposition in 833, which led to vivid discussion among the political elite.2 This was not the first time Louis publicly acknowledged his errors, since he had already done so in 822 at Attigny, one of the most important palaces, which was associated with political

in Religious Franks
The legend of Frederic of Utrecht
Bram van den Hoven van Genderen

22 Incest, penance and a murdered bishop: the legend of Frederic of Utrecht Bram van den Hoven van Genderen The title of this contribution refers to the early-eleventh-century Passio Friderici.1 In this saint’s life bishop Frederic of Utrecht (fl. c. 822/26–34) is murdered by a couple of minions of Empress Judith, wife of Emperor Louis the Pious, out of revenge for the bishop’s accusations of incest and adultery against her. Moreover, incest was involved in a double sense. Judith’s presumed lover, Count Bernard of Septimania, was, according to the Passio, also

in Religious Franks
Janet L. Nelson

exclaim: ‘Incorrigible Hincmar! … chaque morceau est intéressant mais … la longueur est excessive’ (‘each bit is interesting but the whole thing is excessively long’). 2 Writing of the 820s I will return presently to the Collectio de ecclesiis . But to get an entrée to Hincmar’s life at the earliest possible date, we have to go back to August 822. Hincmar, as a youthful canon at St-Denis, had followed his nutritor Hilduin, abbot of St-Denis and imperial arch-chaplain, to the court of Louis the Pious and the great

in Hincmar of Rheims
Abstract only
Hincmar’s world
Rachel Stone

fields. It is intended as a road-marker, showing how recent research has altered our understanding of the archbishop, and of the world he did so much to shape. Above all, as the subtitle indicates, it connects together Hincmar’s life and work. Hincmar’s works are overwhelmingly anchored to a specific time, place and context: he wrote in response to events, not as an abstract theorist or secluded in a monastic cell. He was on the front line of politics, serving four successive rulers of western Francia (Louis the Pious, Charles the Bald, Louis the Stammerer and

in Hincmar of Rheims
Abstract only
The case of Hincmar of Laon in the Annals of St-Bertin
Christine Kleinjung

hint of the later turn of events. It is by no means about an unworthy and bad bishop. The topic is rather one of those that determined the pulse of the age: dealing with ecclesiastical property and the relationship of secular and spiritual power. Hincmar of Laon had refused to give the king the entire control over the distribution of the property of the see of Laon. Hincmar of Rheims was determined to restore the Church property of Rheims that had been lost in the war between the sons of Louis the Pious. In accordance with this fundamental

in Hincmar of Rheims
Brigitte Kasten

. Louis the Pious, probably soon after 819, issued a capitulary prescribing a new rule: ‘if a man wished to marry a widow, this should not happen according to the terms of Lex Salica , but with the consent and will of the kinsfolk, as their ancestors have done up to this day’. 37 Thus the old ring-money was finally done away with, and the widow’s remarriage placed firmly within the control of the families concerned, regardless of whether or not there were children by her first marriage. All the early barbarian codes had retained Roman law’s emphasis on public aspects

in Law, laity and solidarities
Sylvie Joye

videbit Dominum’. 14 Ibid ., col. 1020, c.  5. We see here a political vocabulary shared amongst Carolingian authors, particularly during the crisis of Louis the Pious and its aftershocks: W.  Wehlen, Geschichtsschreibung und Staatsauffasung im Zeitalter Ludwigs des Frommen (Lübeck, 1970); S.  Patzold, ‘ Consensus – Concordia – Unitas . Überlegungen zu einem politisch-religiösen Ideal der Karolingerzeit’, in N.  Staubach, ed., Exemplaris imago: Ideale in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit (Frankfurt am Main, 2012), pp.  31

in Hincmar of Rheims
Hincmar and Lothar I
Elina Screen

career at court in 822, serving first Hilduin of St-Denis and then Louis the Pious. 23 Hincmar thus knew all the key figures at Louis the Pious’s court, who formed the first post-Verdun generation of lay and clerical magnates. These useful connections and Hincmar’s loyalty help explain why Charles selected Hincmar for the important – but politically very tricky – see of Rheims in 845. Hincmar’s residence at Louis the Pious’s court meant that he would also have known Lothar, either directly or indirectly, though his staunch partisanship of Louis and Charles the Bald

in Hincmar of Rheims