By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.
Anglo-American relief during the Hamidian massacres, 1894–98
, which would combine openness and multilateral international relations through state and non-stateactors. As such, the relief movement for Armenians can be identified as a pivotal point in international history, posing a challenge to the common assumption that such ideals emerged only in the context of the First World War. 85
1 Papers of J. R. Harris, Cadbury Library, Birmingham, DA/21/1/1/26, f. 171. See also ‘Armenia’, The Parents’ Review , VII (1896), 681–4.
2 S. Deringil, ‘“The Armenian Question Is Finally Closed”: Mass Conversions of
This chapter draws the book's central themes together into an overview of how Ireland and the ‘fire brigade’ states adapted to the shifting sands of international relations in the Cold War. The principles of interdependence and interconnectedness are key. In place of a pragmatic battle of East versus West, this chapter emphasises the socialising effect of international relations and the link between national (individual) and international (collective) interests. Africa played a key role in that process. Ireland's history and its deep-rooted (if largely self-defined) post-colonial identity played shaped its attitudes to decolonisation and the creation of successful, independent African states. Its approach in the Congo, Biafra and elsewhere echoed a long-held conviction that the key to international stability – and by inference its own security – lay in the rejection of outside interference and the promotion of co-operation through the medium of international law. Its progressive stance on apartheid and foreign aid helped shape its identity as a member of the EC. And the rise of non-state actors (the anti-apartheid movement and humanitarian NGOs) linked Irish opinion to global debate on an unprecedented scale, precipitating a shift towards transnational action and away from the centrality of the state.
recognized practices which evolved to facilitate the
procurement and exchange of a wide variety of war-making resources
supplied not only by states but also by a host of non-stateactors.
This exchange of resources was sufficiently complex and extensive
to warrant the term European Fiscal-Military System which is
deliberately used here to extend, rather than replace, the existing
term Fiscal-Military State by supplementing the study of war’s impact
on domestic development with an examination of how it affected
interaction with other states and non-stateactors. Taking this
state and non-stateactors. Stéphanie Prévost relates how this humanitarian intervention that moved from providing relief to supporting emigration preceded the usually assumed origin date for such initiatives, that is the years of the First World War, and shows that the mid-1890s were the ‘starting point’ or ‘pivotal point’ for what has been called ‘humanitarian diplomacy’. From its inception international humanitarianism faced serious obstacles from those with isolationist and nationalist impulses, both on the right and the left, who preferred domestic relief to
Erica Charters, Marie Houllemare, and Peter H. Wilson
state, as Thomas
Hobbes claimed in Leviathan, was ‘war of all against all’. Europe was ravaged by the
extreme violence of an age of allegedly ‘religious wars’, from the Reformation until
the Peace of Westphalia (1648), before bellona could finally be tamed by the rise of
centralized, ‘absolutist’ states, epitomized in the ideology and representations of
Louis XIV.14 The processes of eradicating armed non-stateactors, disarming large
sections of the population, and imposing discipline on the state’s own forces was
directly connected to other social disciplinary
‘new wars’. 5
In this interpretation, the elements that characterised the ‘new wars’ also shaped the new forms of relief. The flare-ups of ethnic and intercommunal conflicts, the resort to violence by state and non-stateactors, the emergence of a decentralised war economy, largely based on illicit trafficking and predatory practices: all of this generated the ‘complex emergencies’ that represented a new type of challenge for the humanitarian world. 6 Characterised by ‘extensive violence and loss of life; massive displacements of people; widespread damage to
The Smith College Relief Unit, Near East Relief and visions of Armenian reconstruction, 1919–21
, Florence Snow, Helen Thayer and Helen Whitman.
5 See A. D. Krikorian and E. L. Taylor’s data compilation and analysis, ‘Ninety-six Years Ago Today’, Armenian News Network , 16 February 2015, www.groong.org/orig/ak-20150216.html (accessed 20 March 2020).
6 B. Little, ‘An Explosion of New Endeavours: Global Humanitarian Responses to Industrialized Warfare in the First World War Era’, First World War Studies 5:1 (2014), 1–16.
7 For example, special issue of First World War Studies 5:1 (2014); D. Rodogno, ‘Non-stateActors’ Humanitarian Operations in the
Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.
Displacement and the humanitarian response to suffering: reflections on aiding Armenia
9 K. L. Essayon to James Read, 12 June 1958, Fonds UNHCR 11, as above, Folder 15/JOR/ARM Armenian refugees in Jordan (1958–67).
10 R. Kent, The Anatomy of Disaster Relief: T he International Network in Action (London: Pinter, 1987); Peter Redfield, ‘The Unbearable Lightness of Expats: Double Binds of Humanitarian Mobility’, Cultural Anthropology , 27:2 (2012), 358–82; D. Rodogno, B. Struck and J. Vogel (eds), Shaping the Transnational Sphere: The Transnational Networks of Experts (1840–1930) (New York: Berghahn Books, 2014).
11 D. Rodogno, ‘Non-state