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Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

, A. ( 2014 ), Humanitarian Negotiations with Armed Non-State Actors: Key Lessons from Afghanistan, Sudan, Somalia , Humanitarian Policy Group, Policy Brief 55 ( London : Overseas Development Institute ). Jackson , A. and Giustozzi , A. ( 2012 ), Talking to the Other Side

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

other civilian assets should be spared. In practice, however, there is only one rule: to pursue victory or various advantages. The means used to achieve that end nevertheless differ from one situation or time period to another. The fundamental point is that for political forces engaged in armed conflict, whether state or non-state actors, the threshold of what is tolerable depends on their interests. More generally, how the power treats the population will depend on how

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

Introduction Despite seventy years of UN programme interventions, the need for global humanitarian assistance has not been greater since the end of the Second World War ( UNHCR, 2016a ). In 2017, more than 201 million people living in 134 countries required humanitarian assistance, with a record 68.5 million people forcibly displaced by violence and conflict ( Development Initiatives, 2018 ; UNHCR, 2017 ). The use of violence and conflict by state and non-state

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

’s official response to the cuts and its acute financial crisis, while acknowledging that other international responses, such as bilateral and multilateral discussions between UNRWA and potential donors and various diplomats, have been ongoing throughout this period. Understandably, given UNRWA’s financial circumstances following the announcement of the cuts, the campaign sought to encourage existing and ‘non-traditional’ state and non-state actors to commit funds to ensure that the rights and needs of Palestinian refugees were met. By examining the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sanctuary and security in Toronto, Canada
Graham Hudson

sanctuary city movement in Ontario well before Toronto adopted Access T.O., Randy K. Lippert showed that churches and other non-state actors deployed a host of governmental logics in exercising sovereign power over migrants, describing this practice as ‘sovereignty from below’ (Lippert, 2006 ). Different as they are, all of these perspectives see the city as a dynamic social space within which a plurality of normative orders coexist and compete with each other (McDonald, 1997 ). The sheer scale and scope of this legal or normative pluralism

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
Applying a theory of multi-level governance
Mary C. Murphy

specific conception of EU politics based on an altered relationship between state and non-state actors, where the latter have become increasingly influential. MLG is synonymous with the idea of a movement from government to governance. NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE EU 145 It is also often associated with undermining or bypassing the role and power of the central state. The introduction of devolution in Northern Ireland, under the terms of the 1998 Belfast Agreement, provides a ready case study for examining the application and accuracy of the MLG model. This chapter

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Lessons from the Asia-Pacific
Evangelos Fanoulis

Human resource development (education, vocational training), initiative of non-state actors, good governance, trade-related growth Water, sanitation, public health, initiatives of non-state actors Sustainable rural development (capacity building), good governance Renewable energy, energy efficiency, initiatives of non-state actors, strengthening institutions Water, waste management, renewable energy, initiatives of non-state actors, trade-related issues Education, job growth and human resources development (vocational training), initiatives of non-state actors

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya
Cerwyn Moore

wars 73 Contemporary violence take place in the context of failing states. They are fought by networks of state and non-state actors, where battles are rare and violence is directed mainly against civilians, and which are characterized by a new type of political economy involving a combination of extremist politics and criminality.28 The label Mary Kaldor used to describe the conflict in Bosnia (1992–1995) – which was at once civil, but shaped by internal and external forces, warlordism and criminality – was ‘new wars’.29 According to Kaldor, these types of

in Contemporary violence
Abstract only
Claire Sutherland

are constructed and resisted by both state and non-state actors’ (Callahan 2006 , 12). Although today’s Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), to give it its full name, remains a one-party state, the terms ‘post-socialism’, ‘late socialism’ and ‘socialist market economy’ have variously been used to describe its opening up to foreign trade, aid and investment since the late 1980s. There has been little

in Soldered states
Strategic reflections
Michael Reiterer

addressing pull and push factors. Adding a European economic (Imberteu, 2017) and cultural diplomacy (Council of the European Union, 2017a; European Commission, 2016a; Reiterer, 2014b) to the toolbox is another example of the new comprehensive and integrated approach which was translated into action rather speedily. The EU as a specially qualified non-state actor with institutional limitations has to calibrate its policy to play a role which can be decisive in its core areas of competence, in particular its smart power anchored in economic power with strategic and security

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific