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Elana Wilson Rowe

5 Non-​state actors and the quest for authority in Arctic governance The modern state, as discussed in Chapter 1, can be considered a relative newcomer to the cross-​border politics of the Arctic region. However, states have featured prominently in the preceding two chapters. We have come to see how advantageous positions earned by/​granted to states vis-​à-​vis other states matter for shaping the rules of the road in Arctic cooperative governance –​and ultimately shape outcomes. In this chapter, I seek to broaden the net to explore the positions of key non-​state

in Arctic governance
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Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.

Changing international organisation identities
Author: Susan Park

This book shows how environmentalists have shaped the world's largest multilateral development lender, investment financier and political risk insurer to take up sustainable development. It challenges an emerging consensus over international organisational change to argue that international organisations (IOs) are influenced by their social structure and may change their practices to reflect previously antithetical norms such as sustainable development. The text locates sources of organisational change with environmentalists, thus demonstrating the ways in which non-state actors can effect change within large intergovernmental organisations through socialisation. It combines an account of international organisational change with detailed empirical evidence of change in one issue area across three institutions.

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Transnational activism and state power in China
Author: Stephen Noakes

The tale of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) is typically one of non-state actors reshaping world politics through the power of persuasion and principled ideas. This book is about the unromantic and often uncomfortable realities of transnational advocacy in a strong authoritarian state and rising world power. Drawing together case studies that span a range of issues, repertoires, and results of advocacy, it elaborates the constitutive role of the state in contemporary transnational activism. Because transnational networks are significant globally and domestically, the book speaks to students of comparative and international politics, bridging what is treated here as a superficial divide between the sub-fields. It discusses the campaigns around justice for Falun Gong and the strengthening of intellectual property rights in China. The book then traces the campaign around HIV/AIDS treatment, and the effort to abolish capital punishment in China. In the campaign for Tibetan independence, Chinese intransigence on the matter of national sovereignty for Tibet produced a split within the TAN. The book argues that that TANs can be effective when a legitimacy-seeking state deems the adoption of new policy positions in a given issue area to be critical for the preservation of its own moral authority and power monopoly. The key to working more effectively in China, therefore, is to recognize the source of Chinese Communist Party legitimacy and the connectedness of an issue to it. Those wishing to approach China recognize and take seriously the Chinese power to shape global issues and campaigns in support of them.

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Susan Park

someone or something (the WBG).3 Often this work demonstrates antagonistic relations between non-state actors such as TEANs and development practitioners, and the Bank, culminating in a moral victory for NGOs (Fox and Brown 1998; Khagram 2004; Nelson 1995; Wade 1997). Alternatively, some argue that NGOs have been co-opted by the World Bank, thus undermining the ability of NGOs to green the organisation (Goldman 2005). The book compares how the World Bank, IFC and MIGA have responded to sustainable development norms espoused by TEANs. In doing so, the book differs from

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
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Identity and socialisation
Susan Park

–borrower delegation chains). As with all other P–A model analyses, this overlooks the role of ideas in shaping the identity of the IO and diminishes the role of non-state actors in doing so. Theoretically, both neoliberals and P–A model advocates allow an independent role for ideas. Yet they continue to prioritise material over ideational structures: ‘they prefer to explain International Relations as simple behavioural responses to the forces of physics that act on material objects from the outside’ (Adler 1997: 321). Neoliberals add institutions as additional variables, thus

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
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Lending, investing and guaranteeing sustainable development
Susan Park

nonstate actors. I pointed to the central role that non-state actors such as transnational environmental advocacy networks (TEANs) can play in influencing IOs by challenging their actions and 3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 238 12/11/09 14:56 Page 238 World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists providing alternative ways of understanding the world. This demonstrates that non-state actors can shape world politics through spreading norms that change how states view IO actions, and how IOs themselves understand how they should operationalise their mandates

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
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Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

Introduction Most observers cannot help but notice that each of the major armed conflicts that occurred during the 1990s and the first decade of the present century – Bosnia, Kosovo, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria – has involved the use of terrorism by one or more of the contestants, at one time or another. Conflicts involving armed non-state actors challenging states and each other have become the main form of warfare thus far in the new millennium. The main participants are insurgents and counterinsurgents. Their conflicts are primarily internal

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Open Access (free)
The management of migration between care and control
Pierluigi Musarò

strategies and discursive practices enacted by a wide range of state and non-state actors present the Mediterranean Sea as the setting of a perpetual emergency. European and national political agencies, military authorities, humanitarian organisations, and activists, have been representing migrants crossing borders as a significant problem to be managed in terms of a wider social, cultural and political

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Thomas Prosser

. Notwithstanding the existence of this scholarship, there is little discussion of the role of labour, or non-state actors in general, in the process of disintegration. Owing to this omission, I assess the role labour might play in European disintegration; this will also be relevant to other non-state actors. As contended above, a distinguishing trait of the labour movements examined in this book is inaction. Despite the existence of substantial European economic integration, which triggered spillover in other policy fields (Niemann and Ioannou, 2015

in European labour movements in crisis