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Sophie Roborgh

2286 mention ‘[p]roviding reparations and assistance to victims and restoring essential services’ only as their final point ( UN Secretary-General, 2016 : 10, Recommendation 13). It also overlooks the fact that incident accounts have value in themselves for those providing them. Currently, contributors’ accounts can be excluded for failing to meet the (externally imposed) threshold, even though it is concern for the lives of these same healthcare workers and the broader

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Lorena De Vita

possibility of starting a direct dialogue between the Israeli and the German governments on the question of Holocaust reparations. 6 At the time of Mendelsohn’s travels, many in Israel opposed the idea of having economic, political or social contacts with Germany – let alone of accepting any kind of material restitution or compensation for the horrors committed by the Nazis against the Jews. While his mission was not secret (indeed, several newspapers found out about his activities and reported them), it was not to be widely advertised, either, and Mendelsohn tried to

in Israelpolitik
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German–Israeli relations, 1949–69
Author: Lorena De Vita

The rapprochement between Germany and Israel in the aftermath of the Holocaust is one of the most striking political developments of the twentieth century. German Chancellor Angela Merkel recently referred to it as a ‘miracle’. But how did this ‘miracle’ come about? Drawing upon sources from both sides of the Iron Curtain and of the Arab–Israeli conflict, Lorena De Vita traces the contradictions and dilemmas that shaped the making of German–Israeli relations at the outset of the global Cold War. Israelpolitik offers new insights not only into the history of German–Israeli relations, but also into the Cold War competition between the two German states, as each attempted to strengthen its position in the Middle East and the international arena while struggling with the legacy of the Nazi past.

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Lorena De Vita

When the negotiations between West Germans and Israelis began, on 21 March 1952, the atmosphere was tense. The opening announcement read by the Israeli delegation stated that no amount of reparation would ever be enough to compensate the Jewish victims of the Nazi crimes. The one read by the West German delegation recognised the unprecedented nature of the crimes committed against the Jews – but it also stressed the importance of recognising Bonn’s limited ability to pay reparations under the present circumstances. 1 The slow rhythm of the exchange was marked

in Israelpolitik
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Lorena De Vita

take on the events was rather different. As he made clear during his talks with the German negotiators, Naguib insisted that the FRG ‘“owed” [the] Arab States an “indemnity”’ and that the ‘long-term credits to [the Arab States], of which Egypt would get [the] lion’s share, should “at least” equal [the] amount of reparations paid [to] Israel’. 4 US Ambassador Caffery worked hard to help the West Germans reach out to the local authorities, and explained to the Bonn delegation the main issues that were behind the attitude of the Egyptian counterparts – i.e. their

in Israelpolitik
Helen Thompson

, among other things, be financially in our hands’.2 For the former Central powers there was no escape. Either they did what was necessary to secure American credit, or they would have to make huge domestic sacrifices to finance reparations. The Allied powers could only hope to escape de facto surveillance of their domestic politics if they procured substantial reparations from Germany, which the United States was unwilling to help in abetting either by direct action or offering Germany credit. In 1919, even before the American Senate had jettisoned the League of

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Andrew Williams

discussions at Paris gave at least a chance to redress this situation. However, as Robert Skidelsky has aptly put it, ‘[a]ny chance the world had of regaining political, economic and moral equilibrium [after the Treaty of Versailles] was fatally undermined by the inability of American and European statesmen to liquidate the twin and connected problems of interAllied War debts and German reparations.’19 Once Germany had been blamed for the war and its consequences it became inevitable that the main economic business of Paris would be tied up with assessing the bill with

in Failed imagination?
Nikolai Vukov

ceded territories with a substantial Bulgarian population to neighbouring states and imposed harsh reparations. The influx of refugees from territories beyond Bulgaria’s border posed a heavy burden. As a leading reporter observed: The arrival of Bulgarian refugees, expelled from neighbouring countries, as a result of the First World War, continues incessantly in a long chain that adds to the difficult situation created by several hundred thousand miserable folk who escaped from Romania, Serbia, and chiefly from Thrace and Macedonia, and who found shelter in what for

in Europe on the move
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Helen Thompson

, especially in states in which great-power status was central to the imaginative foundations of the state’s authority. The inequality of monetary power relations exacerbated what were already fraught relations between the major powers. Inter-state debt between the First World War allies and German reparations to the European allies gave leverage to the United States to push European states towards actions they would not freely have chosen. Within Europe this simultaneously gave the United States and its war allies power over Germany, and Germany the incentive to debilitate

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Relationships and issues, 1941–45
Andrew Williams

supported by the United States.13 But Welles’ dismissive tone was more the norm. France was largely seen as an irrelevance in Washington. The dislike was also undoubtedly because many in Washington feared that the French, were they given the chance, might demand a settlement as punitive as Versailles. The State Department was sent information in early 1943 indicating that France would demand reparations from Germany after Williams Chapter 5 145 23/10/98, 11:41 am 146 Failed imagination? the war (‘their slice of the melon’), especially if other states did. This was

in Failed imagination?