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Hayyim Rothman

‘chauvinist nationalism (Hofshi 1964a , 172).’ This would mean reversing both the ‘emphatic refusal to admit that two peoples share historical rights to a common homeland’ and the consequent ‘rule of the one as master over the majority of the population of the other (Hofshi 1964a , 189).’ More concretely, it would mean reparations: ‘if Jews do not release their homes and their property, which were appropriated by the Nazis in Germany, if they insist now on reparations, appealing to the law, to justice, and to what is moral,’ he wrote, ‘all the more so those who inhabited

in No masters but God
Manchester Quakers and refugees, 1933–1937
Bill Williams

Germany was muted both by their fears of retaliation against their German co-religionists and by their sense of the degree to which British policies at the end of the First World War might be held responsible for the rise of Nazism; in June 1934 the Quakers were still being approached by British organisations committed to the material help of Germans impoverished by an economic crisis of which reparations might be seen as one cause and the ‘abnormal political situation’ as one result.40 British Friends attempted to strike a balance between the general Quaker objective

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Kathleen G. Cushing

appropriate role for the lay aristocracy. 59 Between 1078 and 1080, as Cowdrey has discussed, Gregory VII turned his attention to a distinction between true and false penances. 60 In this, he clearly had in mind the so-called tariffed or formulaic penances that prescribed specific amounts of fasting and other reparations for specific infractions. From 1078, Gregory seems to have been especially concerned with those such as knights, merchants and officials – whom he specifically mentioned – whose professions in life could not be followed without sin. As a consequence

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Open Access (free)
Alison Forrestal

archevêques [et] évêques . . . soient maintenus dans tous les droits . . . et avantages, dont ils ont joui ou dû jouir jusqu’à présent.’ 64 Ibid., p. 253: ‘service divin, réparations des églises, achats d’ornemens, subsistance des curés . . . corrections des moeurs des personnes ecclésiastiques, et toutes autres choses concernant la discipline ecclésiastique . . .’ 65 Ibid., p. 252: ‘la réparation du scandale, et trouble de l’ordre et tranquilité publique, et contravention aux ordonnances, qui la publication [d’un] doctrine aura pu causer’. 66 Blet, Assemblées, pp. 128

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Mairi Cowan

also to offer him a wax candle weighing three pounds to be burnt before the altar of St Giles. 158 Similar reparations for injuries were made in churches throughout the burghs of Scotland. Davy Patrickson, burgess of Aberdeen, when found to have rebelled against an alderman, was ordered to come on Sunday at the time of High Mass to St Nicholas church barefoot, in a loose gown, and with a one

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

’;106 decreeing that even if the fathers of Zionism did infringe on Palestinian rights, their sons and grandsons, born in Israel and constituting the majority of its inhabitants, cannot be held accountable and at the most can be called upon to make reparations;107 and understanding that the inhabitants of Palestine were indeed Arab liberals, Zionism and Israel 131 victims of the Jewish emigration from Europe, but the world shutting its doors to refugees fleeing Nazi persecution had left the Jews with no alternative.108 Arabs should not deny the Holocaust, and in

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Elizabeth Vandiver and Ralph Keen

, and condemn not only the rites and sacraments of the Church, but even the laws of the Princes and any and all governmental arrangements of human beings. These were among the articles: ‘That the Seven Sacraments must be denied, and only three accepted for the time being; that Transubstantiation at the altar must be considered a human fiction, since it is based upon nothing in Scripture or in reason. That it is a manifest and impious error to offer or apply Mass for sins, for reparations, for the dead, or for any necessities of one’s own or of others. That only they who

in Luther’s lives
Brian Sudlow

various legislative Republican campaigns, the secularising spirit behind these expulsions, and those of 1901–1904 under the administration of Emile Combes, is only too apparent. René Viviani advanced before the Chamber the secular vision underpinning the terms of the 1901 bill: Si vous trouvez en face de vous, comme Monsieur de Mun nous l’a promis, cette religion divine qui poétise la souffrance en lui promettant les réparations futures, oppose-lui la religion de l’humanité qui, elle aussi, poétise la souffrance en lui offrant en récompense le bonheur des générations

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Andrew J. May

suzerainty, signing agreements that ceded their lands and judicial powers, paying monetary reparations and vowing to give the outlaw U Tirot Sing up to the British. 47 Governor General William Bentinck casually dismissed the ‘slight insurrections’ in the region. ‘The insurgents’, he reported to Lord Ellenborough, President of the EIC’s Board of Control, ‘are only armed with bows and

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
Abstract only
Reading Old Testament women in early modern England, 1550–1700
Victoria Brownlee and Laura Gallagher

hailed as virtuous wifely exemplars. 21 Although Old Testament women were frequently categorised as godly or wicked, the biblical narratives within which these women reside often reveal more complex figures than marriage and conduct writings suggest. Take Abigail, for example. 1 Samuel 25 details how she makes reparations to David and his army for Nabal’s churlishness by

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700