directly by organisations such as AQ and IS, importantly, as Chapters 3 and 4 show, they provide the ideological backdrop on which their anti-capitalist discourses are articulated.
Cases of crisis-lending to LDCs, such as in joint-run World Bank, IMF, and US Agency for International Development (USAID) projects in Haiti during the 1980s and in 2010, demonstrate some of the undesirable effects referenced in the IMF report. These effects in fact extended Haiti’s long legacy of debt servitude, since its independence, including payment of reparations for a century from
control the other commissioners, with the support of Lord Dufferin, the British
commissioner. 64 The mandate of the
commission was to punish the guilty, secure reparations for the Christian losses and
suggest reforms that would ensure order and security. 65 Deliberations, with Fuad chairing, started on 5 October 1860
with the aim of arriving at a new arrangement for Lebanon. The French tried to set
up a Maronite Lebanon under a native Christian governor. The Austrian and Prussian
enterprise of empire-building come to see themselves as victims and see it as right to demand reparations for their victimisation.
Donald Trump, racism and white victimhood
There is a denial about the salience of racism among white Americans, partly because a majority of Americans want to avoid the stigma and perception that they are racist but also because a majority of Americans would be horrified to think they are capable of racism (Mendelberg 2001 ; Saul 2017 , 7). Of course, President Trump has changed the