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Crafting authoritarian regimes in Russia’s regions and republics
Cameron Ross

regional elites. Russia’s ‘federation’ without ‘federalism’ has simply allowed the authoritarianism of the centre to be replaced by local level authoritarianism. As we discussed in chapter 3 regional and republican elites have been able to adopt constitutions/charters and other laws which violate the federal constitution. And a number of the bilateral treaties signed between Moscow and the regions have sanctioned the transfer of unconstitutional rights and powers to the republics.1 Thus, authoritarian leaders have been able to use the federal system as a protective

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Bryan Fanning

, through a process of exclusionary nation-building. The Irishness invoked by Mansergh is grounded in a republicanism which claims a moral authority to act on behalf of the ‘Irish people’. This can be distinguished from another nationalist tradition of pragmatic, democratic parlimentarianism where, as put by Garvin, ‘the players are the flesh and blood “people of Ireland” rather than the “mystical Irish People”’.16 Rouseau’s distinction between the general will (interpreted by the republican elite) and the ‘will of all’ (determined by a counting of heads) perhaps applies

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Cameron Ross

Russian Constitution guarantees the equality of all citizens regardless of nationality – including political rights. But in Russia republican elites regularly discriminate against minority groups and give preferential political representation to their indigenous populations even when that FAD4 10/17/2002 66 5:43 PM Page 66 Federalism and democratisation in Russia population does not comprise a majority in the given republic. As Kahn notes, whilst republican constitutions are ‘replete with declarations about the supremacy of law, open, free and fair multiparty

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia