during his lifetime, and translated into French and English. 68 Fiore, whose work anticipated the international
law of human rights, 69 was of the view
that the ultimate sourceofinternationallaw was the juridical conscience of
European peoples. 70 Human society was
‘universal’ but only fully civilized states could be members of what
he called the Magna civitas , the juridical community. He had doubts whether
civilization could extend uniformly to all parts of the
Henckaerts and Doswald-Beck, 2005.
See, e.g., Akehurst, ‘The hierarchy of the
sourcesofinternationallaw’, 47 Brit. Y.B. Int’l Law
(1974–75) 273; Villiger, Customary International Law and
Treaties , Part III.
Declaration of Paris, Schindler