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From the 1960s to the 1990s
Nizan Shaked

, or when referring to both.3 Within this expanding chronicle characteristic trajectories have gradually been defined from broader methodological and geographical perspectives.4 This chapter shows how, in the United States’ context, some of the most important strategies of conceptualism developed through the influence of contemporaneous politics, more specifically the transition from Civil Rights into Black Power, the New Left, the anti-war movement, feminism, and gay liberation, as well as what later came to be 1 28 The synthetic proposition collectively named

in The synthetic proposition
Abstract only
Antigoni Memou

became the symbol of the American anti-war movement, but contributed to the revival of the movement with a new wave of demonstrations across the United States and Europe.3 Equally recognisable is the image of a man stopping a tank, taken in Beijing in June 1989, which symbolised the Tiananmen Square protests and the subsequent massacre.4 Although all these pictures were taken in the era of television, and the last one especially owes its fame to a great extent to television broadcasting, it is the intrinsic qualities of the photographic medium, including its

in Photography and social movements
Death and press photography in the anti-capitalist protests in Genoa 2001
Antigoni Memou

protester and of a girl screaming above him. The popularity that these pictures have obtained becomes obvious in their continuous reproductions in newspapers, on posters, T-shirts, record album covers. Filo’s picture not only became the symbol of the American anti-war movement, but contributed to the revival of the movement with a new wave of demonstrations across the United States and Europe.42 They both inspired protesters all over the world, not only in the 1960s and in the 1970s, but also in the following decades. The fact that these images were easily recognisable in

in Photography and social movements
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Counter-power in photography from slavery to Occupy Wall Street
Nicholas Mirzoeff

a new Reconstruction (King 1967). In 1962, Michael Harrington’s The Other America had highlighted the invisibility of the poor, showing that in 1959 an extraordinary 55 per cent of African Americans lived in poverty (Harrington 1962, 63). The Poor People’s Campaign of 1967–​68 was inseparable from the anti-​ war movement and anti-​racist direct action. It explicitly designated the poor as the ‘colonised’ within the settler colony (Goldstein 2014, 137). Connecting the movements produced a new commons. It was made visible at Resurrection City, where thousands camped

in Image operations
Marc James Léger

of it in the mainstream art world. In an essay that discusses the organisational situation faced by the American anti-war movement in 1968, Brian Holmes mentions the theory of the revolutionary leader Amílcar Cabral, who argued that petty-bourgeois functionaries should be allowed to develop in the direction of their natural inclination as an intermediary bourgeoisie, eventually committing suicide as a class so that it can be reborn in its popular aspirations. 32 It is good then that art world functionaries were invited to the event

in Vanguardia
Word and image in Chicago Surrealism
Joanna Pawlik

, second wave feminism, Black Nationalism and the  anti-war movement were, broadly speaking, like the Chicago group, revising the orthodox Left’s neglect of the embodied individual, the psyche and pleasure, and placing these firmly at the heart of a radical politics. Yet whatever similarities the group discerned between Surrealism and other forms of protest, they were keen to preserve their distance from some of the excesses of the counterculture, taking exception to its white, middle-class complexion and its arrogation of too much importance to personal liberation at

in Mixed messages
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Nizan Shaked

conceptualism by showing the coherence of an on-going mode of practice that synthesised the infrastructural analysis of first generation Conceptual Art with a turn to overt representation of political subject matter. This development reflects the influence of Civil Rights, Black Power, the student movement, the anti-war movement, second wave feminism, and the gay liberation movement. Central in the American context, the multiple identity-based mobilisations that came to be known as “identity politics” were further articulated in the 1970s. These processes were reflected in

in The synthetic proposition